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Table 2 Net benefit of RYR preparations in lipid profile in placebo-controlled trials

From: Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus) for primary hyperlipidemia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

No. of subjects   Baseline Post-treatment Difference P value
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (95% CI) % Change
TC levels (mmol/L)       
Cholestin 42 6.47 (0.78) 5.43 (0.80) -1.04 (-1.38 to -0.70) -16% < 0.00001
Placebo 41 6.59 (0.75) 6.47 (0.93) -0.12 (-0.49 to 0.25) -2% 0.52
30 6.68 (0.98) 5.31 (0.84) -1.37 (-1.83 to -0.91) -21%  
33 5.81 (0.63) 4.26 (0.63) -1.55 (-1.85 to -1.25) -27%  
Xuezhikang 101 7.30 (1.40) 5.90 (1.40) -1.40 (-1.79 to -1.01) -19%  
30 5.65 (1.31) 3.16 (1.31) -2.49 (-3.15 to -1.83) -44%  
Subtotal: 194    -1.63 (-2.00 to -1.26)   < 0.00001
28 6.72 (0.97) 6.43 (0.93) -0.29 (-0.79 to 0.21) -4%  
30 5.84 (0.67) 4.94 (0.67) -0.90 (-1.24 to -0.56) -15%  
Placebo 51 6.80 (1.40) 6.70 (1.40) -0.10 (-0.64 to 0.44) -1%  
20 5.55 (1.02) 4.95 (1.02) -0.60 (-1.23 to 0.03) -11%  
Subtotal: 129    -0.50 (-0.90 to -0.11)   0.01
9 5.90 (0.95) 4.94 (0.65) -0.96 (-1.71 to -0.21) -16%  
Zhibituo 30 6.70 (1.10) 5.80 (0.90) -0.90 (-1.41 to -0.39) -13%  
104 7.10 (1.70) 5.60 (1.30) -1.50 (-1.91 to -1.09) -21%  
Subtotal: 143    -1.17 (-1.59 to -0.74)   < 0.00001
9 5.83 (0.57) 5.56 (0.53) -0.27 (-0.78 to 0.24) -5%  
Placebo 30 6.70 (1.50) 6.40 (1.30) -0.30 (-1.01 to 0.41) -4%  
101 6.00 (1.80) 6.50 (0.70) 0.50 (0.12 to 0.88) 8%  
Subtotal: 140    0.02 (-0.56 to 0.60)   0.95
TG levels (mmol/L)       
Cholestin 42 1.50 (0.54) 1.40 (0.50) -0.10 (-0.32 to 0.12) -7% 0.38
Placebo 41 1.61 (0.52) 1.65 (0.53) 0.04 (-0.19 to 0.27) 2%  
30 2.84 (0.57) 2.38 (0.62) -0.46 (-0.76 to -0.16) -16%  
33 2.10 (0.92) 1.82 (0.92) -0.28 (-0.72 to 0.16) -13%  
Xuezhikang 101 3.60 (2.40) 2.30 (1.60) -1.30 (-1.86 to -0.74) -36%  
30 2.62 (0.58) 1.47 (0.58) -1.15 (-1.44 to -0.86) -44%  
Subtotal: 194    -0.78 (-1.26 to -0.31)   0.001
28 2.74 (0.73) 2.57 (0.69) -0.17 (-0.54 to 0.20) -6%  
Placebo 30 2.14 (0.94) 1.91 (0.94) 3.00 (1.60) -0.23 (-0.71 to 0.25) -0.30 (-0.92 to 0.32) -11%  
51 3.30 (1.60) 3.00 (1.60) -0.30 (-0.92 to 0.32) -9%  
20 2.50 (0.50) 2.11 (0.50) -0.39 (-0.70 to -0.08) -16%  
Subtotal: 129    -0.29 (-0.49 to -0.09)   0.005
13 2.46 (1.23) 1.79 (0.57) -0.67 (-1.41 to 0.07) -27%  
Zhibituo 30 3.40 (0.90) 2.10 (1.10) -1.30 (-1.81 to -0.79) -38%  
104 3.40 (1.50) 2.30 (1.30) -1.10 (-1.48 to -0.72) -32%  
Subtotal: 147    -1.10 (-1.38 to -0.82)   < 0.00001
9 2.56 (0.88) 2.36 (0.64) -0.20 (-0.91 to 0.51) -8%  
30 3.40 (1.10) 3.10 (1.20) -0.30 (-0.88 to 0.28) -9%  
Placebo 101 3.10 (0.40) 2.50 (1.40) -0.60 (-0.88 to -0.32) -19%  
Subtotal: 140    -0.50 (-0.74 to -0.26)   < 0.0001
LDL-C levels (mmol/L)       
Cholestin 42 4.47 (0.70) 3.49 (0.70) -0.98 (-1.28 to -0.68) -22% < 0.00001
Placebo 41 4.65 (0.78) 4.53 (0.85) -0.12 (-0.47 to 0.23) -3% 0.51
30 3.94 (0.82) 2.83 (0.88) -1.11 (-1.54 to -0.68) -28%  
33 4.13 (0.52) 2.80 (0.52) -1.33 (-1.58 to -1.08) -32%  
Xuezhikang 101 4.80 (1.60) 3.50 (1.40) -1.30 (-1.71 to -0.89) -27%  
30 3.00 (1.03) 2.10 (1.03) -0.90 (-1.42 to -0.38) -30%  
Subtotal: 194    -1.23 (-1.41 to -1.05)   <0.00001
28 4.13 (0.94) 4.01 (0.86) -0.12 (-0.59 to 0.35) -3%  
30 4.24 (0.53) 3.41 (0.53) -0.83 (-1.10 to -0.56) -20%  
Placebo 51 4.20 (1.60) 4.30 (1.60) 0.10 (-0.52 to 0.72) 2%  
20 3.19 (0.87) 2.70 (0.87) -0.49 (-1.03 to 0.05) -15%  
Subtotal: 129    -0.38 (-0.83 to 0.07)   0.10
Zhibituo 104 3.70 (1.60) 3.50 (1.40) -0.20 (-0.61 to 0.21) -5% 0.34
Placebo 101 3.70 (1.20) 3.70 (1.00) 0.00 (-0.30 to 0.30) 0% 1.00
HDL-C levels (mmol/L)       
Cholestin 42 1.29 (0.34) 1.29 (0.36) 0.00 (-0.15 to 0.15) 0% 1.00
Placebo 41 1.19 (0.26) 1.19 (0.28) 0.00 (-0.12 to 0.12) 0% 1.00
30 1.50 (0.46) 1.67 (0.54) 0.17 (-0.08 to 0.42) 11%  
33 1.37 (0.21) 1.16 (0.21) -0.21 (-0.31 to -0.11) -15%  
Xuezhikang 101 1.20 (0.40) 1.40 (0.30) 0.20 (0.10 to 0.30) 17%  
30 1.20 (0.21) 1.22 (0.21) 0.02 (-0.09 to 0.13) 2%  
Subtotal: 194    0.04 (-0.17 to 0.24)   0.73
28 1.57 (0.69) 1.53 (0.32) -0.04 (-0.32 to 0.24) -3%  
30 1.36 (0.24) 1.13 (0.24) -0.23 (-0.35 to -0.11) -17%  
51 1.30 (0.40) 1.30 (0.30) 0.00 (-0.14 to 0.14) 0%  
Placebo 20 1.22 (0.25) 1.00 (0.25) -0.22 (-0.37 to -0.07) -18%  
Subtotal: 129    -0.13 (-0.26 to -0.01)   0.04
13 0.89 (0.41) 1.09 (0.41) 0.20 (-0.12 to 0.52) 22%  
30 1.08 (0.11) 1.31 (0.17) 0.23 (0.16 to 0.30) 21%  
Zhibituo 104 0.85 (0.14) 0.98 (0.26) 0.13 (0.07 to 0.19) 15%  
Subtotal: 147    0.18 (0.10 to 0.26)   < 0.0001
13 0.92 (0.19) 0.90 (0.17) -0.02 (-0.16 to 0.12) -2%  
30 0.99 (0.20) 1.02 (0.28) 0.03 (-0.09 to 0.15) 3%  
Placebo 101 0.89 (0.13) 0.80 (0.30) -0.09 (-0.15 to -0.03) -10%  
Subtotal: 144    -0.04 (-0.12 to 0.03)   0.26