Schematic overview of ginsenoside Rg
-mediated angiogenic action in HUVEC. Ginsenoside Rg1, which acts as a functional ligand of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) (either cytosol GR or membrane-bound GR-mGR), promotes angiogenesis through both non-genomic and genomic pathways. Through the non-genomic pathway, it increases nitric oxide (NO) production via the PI3K-Akt pathway: GR → phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway → endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway. Rg1 also increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production through the GR → PI3K/Akt → GSK3β → β-catenin/TCF pathway. Gene expression profiling data indicated that Rg1 could increase the expression of a group of genes (e.g. Rho A, RhoB, IQGAP1, LAMA4, CALM2 and Vav2) which are related to cell-cell adhesion, migration and cytoskeletal remodeling.