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Table 3 Distribution frequencies* of Chinese herbal product prescriptions potentially containing aristolochic acid (by cumulated doses), 1997–2003

From: Prescription profile of potentially aristolochic acid containing Chinese herbal products: an analysis of National Health Insurance data in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003

Herbal product Cumulated dose (g)
Median (90% CI#)
No. of patients Percentages (%) of patients with various cumulated doses of AA herbs
<15 g 16–30 g 31–60 g 61–100 g 101–150 g >150 g
Types of AA herbs included
Xixin 12.6 (1.5–128.5) 47,869 54.1 18.6 13.6 6.4 3.3 4.0
Tianxianteng 10.5 (0.03–87.0) 110 66.0 19.4 2.9 7.8 1.9 1.9
Madouling 21.0 (4.0–120.0) 665 36.0 29.1 19.7 7.5 4.3 3.4
Herbs potentially adulterated by AA herbs
Fangji 6.0 (1.1–50.8) 34,462 77.8 12.0 6.2 2.2 0.9 1.0
Muxiang 8.0 (1.2–70.0) 34,195 69.1 15.9 8.8 3.2 1.6 1.5
Mutong 14.0 (1.8–124.4) 34,399 51.8 19.9 14.6 6.7 3.2 3.8
  1. *Distribution frequency refers to the number of patients who have been prescribed with Chinese herbal products that may potentially contain aristolochic acid (AA).
  2. #90% CI: 90% confidence interval