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Table 1 Ethnomedicinal uses and properties of the selected plants

From: Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

Latin pharmaceutical name/Plant scientific name/Family/Voucher specimen no. Vernacular/pinyin names Ethnomedicinal uses Properties
Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis/Persicaria hydropiper (L.)a Spach/Polygonaceae/001-CS0807 Laksa plant/Laliaocao Used as a condiment. Also employed as a stomachic and aphrodisiac. Externally, the crushed leaves or juice are used to treat skin conditions such as ringworms, scabies, boils, abscesses, carbuncles, ulcers or bites of snakes, dogs or insects Antioxidant [810]
Folium Murraya Koenigii/Murraya koenigii Spreng./ Rutaceae/002-CS0807 Curry leaves/Jialiye Used as a condiment. Treatment of piles, inflammation, itching, fresh cuts, dysentery, vomiting, burses and dropsy Reducing halitosis [11], antioxidant [12], antimicrobial [13], antifungal [14], antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties [15]
Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea/Arachis hypogaea L./Leguminosae/003-CS0807 Groundnut/Huashenggen Treatment of insomnia and strengthening of bones Antifibrinolytic [16]
Herba Houttuyniae/Houttuynia cordata Thunb./Saururaceae/004-CS0807 Chinese houttuynia or chameleon plant/Yuxingcao Detoxification, treatment of infection, removing toxic heat, promoting drainage of pus and urination Anti-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) [17]. Prevention of urinary infection, modulation of neutrophils and monocytes, inhibition of respiratory bacteria [18, 19]. Anti-inflammatory activity [20]. Virucidal effects on herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, influenza virus, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [21, 22]
Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl./Araceae/005-CS0807 Dragon tail/Pashulong Detoxification, removes toxic heat, tendonitis, fractures, burns, carbuncles, sores, redness Cytotoxicity against cancers cells [23], immuno-modulating [24]
Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme/Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume/006-CS0807 Rodent tuber/Laoshuyu Treatment of cough, asthma, nausea and cancers Relieving cough, eliminating phlegm, asthmatic, analgesia, anti-inflammation, sedation and cytotoxic activities [2528]
Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis/Magnolia biloba (Rehder & E. H. Wilson) Cheng/Magnoliaceae/007-CS0807 Magnolia/Houpo A tonic to improve general well-being, also used to treat cough, diarrhea, allergic rhinitis and phlegm Alleviateing menopausal symptoms [29], brochial asthma [30, 31], active against Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum [32], antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities [33, 34]
Rhizoma Imperatae/Imperata cylidrica (L.) Beeuv. var. major (Nees) C.E. Hubb/Gramineae/008-CS0807 Lalang/Baimaogen Wound-healing, diuretic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agents Neuroprotective, immunostimulating effects [35]
  1. aPersicaria hydropiper (L.) is synonymous with Polygonum hydropiper (L.). Persicaria hydropiper (L.) and Persicaria odoratum (L.) are commonly used interchangeably in literature while they are two distinct species. Efforts were made to identify the species of laksa plants used in the study. The plant was probably Persicaria hydropiper (L.). A specimen of the plant has been deposited in the National University of Singapore Herbarium for future reference.