Insulin secretion and pancreatic-β-cell apoptosis. Glucose is taken up into β-cells via glucose transporters. It is metabolized in glycolysis and Krebs cycle, resulting in an increased ratio of ATP to ADP in the cytoplasm. This closes ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels), leading to cell membrane depolarization and subsequently opening voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. These changes increase free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cytoplasm and eventually triggers insulin secretion. In apoptosis, stimuli promotes the release of caspase activators from mitochondria and result in the activation of caspases procedure, by cleaving the effector caspases, which interacts with a variety of cellular proteins, resulting in directly or indirectly the morphological and biochemical characteristics of cell apoptosis. The action sites of hypoglycemia herbs are indicated with a narrow.