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Table 1 Anti-fibrosis effect of compounds or extracts derived from Chinese medicines

From: Chinese medicines as a resource for liver fibrosis treatment

Compounds or extracts and major references Pharmacological actions and clinical indications Botanic source
Salvia miltiorrhiza Extract & SA-B [1318] Reduce ALT and AST activities, inhibit protein expressions of TGF-β1, type I collagen and Smad3, anti-oxidation, down- regulate TGF-β1, TIMP-1 gene expression and MAPK activity, anti-nitric oxide, anti-apoptosis, apply to CHB patients Root of Salviae miltiorrhiza Bge.
Glycyrrhizin [1926] Reduce ALT and AST activities, inhibit NF-κB binding activity, down-regulate smurf2 gene expression, apply to CHC patients and prevent hepatocarcinoma in patients with HCV-associated cirrhosis Rhizome of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Glycyrrhiza inflata Batal. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Tetrandrine [2732] Down-regulate c-fos and c-jun gene expression, anti-nitric oxide, up-regulate Smad7 gene expression, apply to CHB patients, down-regulate NF-κB signalling cascade and biomarker such as ICAM-1 and α-SMA Root of Stephaniae tetrandrae S. Moore
Matrine & Oxymatrine [3335] Inhibit PDGF and TGF-β1 actions, inhibit HBV-DNA, improve liver function in patients with CHB or CHC patients Root of Sophorae flavescentis Ait
Taurine [36, 37] Inhibit TGF-β1 action, collagen formation in M cell culture system, reduce oxidative stress Calculus Bovis
Tetramethylpyrazine (Chuanxiongzine) [38] Anti-oxidation, synergic anti-hepatic fibrosis effect with rehin, apply to CHB patients Rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.
Rehin, emodin [3941] Inhibit TGF-β1 expression, anti-HSC proliferation Root and Rhizome of Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim. Ex Balf. or Rheum officinale Baill.
Curcumin [42, 43] Anti-oxidative effect, activate PPARgamma to reduce cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and suppress ECM gene expression in vitro and in vivo Rhizome of Curcumae longa L.
Panax Notoginseng saponin and its water-extract [4446] Reduce AST and ALT, increase liver and serum SOD, reduce serum liver fibrosis markers levels, prevent liver fibrosis and hepatic microvascular dysfunction in liver fibrosis rats Root of Panax notoginseng (Burk)F.H. Chen
Cordyceps polysaccharide [47, 48] Increase CD4/CD8 T lymphocytes ratio and decrease HA and PC III, inhibit TGF-β1 and PDGF expressions, reduce AST and ALT, apply to CHB patients The complex of the stroma of the fungus Cordceps sinensis (berk.)Sacc. and larva of caterpillar on which the fungus grows
Ginkgo biloba extract [49, 50] Reduce ALT and AST, anti-oxidation, suppress NF-κB activation, inhibit TGF-β1 and collagen gene expression in rats Leaves of Ginkgo bioba L.
Artemisinin/artesunate [51] As inhibitors of hepatitis B virus production Aerial part of Artemesia annua L.
Berberis aristata fruit extract and berberine [5262] Reduce AST and ALT, anti-oxidation, suppress expression of NF-κB, α-SMA, TGF-β1, anti-liver cancer, induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines and animal models Rhizome of Coptis chinensis French., Coptis teeta Wall., Coptis japonica Makino., other genus Berberis
Aucubin [63, 64] Reduce AST and ALT, against HBV replication, suppress NF-κB activation in cell or animal models. Ripe seed of Plantago asiatica L.
Ganoderma lucidum extract & Ganoderma polysaccharide [65, 66] Reduce AST, ALT, ALP, Tbil and the collagen content in rats with cirrhosis induced by biliary obstruction in rats, inhibit HSCs cells proliferation through blocking PDGFβR phosphorylation Ganoderma lucidum
Gypenoside [67] Inhibits HSCs proliferation, arrest HSC cells at G1 phase, inhibit the signal pathway of PDGF-Akt-p70 and down-regulate of cyclin D1 and D3 expression Gynostemma pentaphyllum
Solanum nigrum Linn extract [68] Reduce AST, ALT, ALP, Tbil, modulate GSTs and SOD, repress the production of free radicals Solanum nigrum Linn