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Table 1 Summary of results from single herb ginseng clinical trials

From: Study designs of randomized controlled trials not based on Chinese medicine theory are improper

  Trial quality* Research topic Participants (n) Herb species Chinese medicine theory Reference
Negative results       
Allen JD et al. (1998) 4 Exercise performance Healthy young (28) P. ginseng No Qi-deficiency [17]
Cardinal BJ et al. (2001) 4 Psychological well-being Healthy young adults (83) P. ginseng No Qi-deficiency [18]
Caron MF et al. (2002) 3 Cardiovascular function Healthy adults (30) P. ginseng No Qi-deficiency [42]
Dowling EA et al. (1996) 3 Exercise performance Highly trained distance runners (20) Acanthopanax senticosus No Qi-deficiency [43]
Engels HJ et al. (1997) 3 Physiologic and psychological responses Healthy adults (36) P. ginseng No Qi-deficiency [21]
Engels HJ et al. (2001) 3 Exercise & short-term recovery Healthy active women (24) P. ginseng No Qi-deficiency [20]
Engels HJ et al. (2003) 3 Physical performance heart rate recovery Active healthy adults (38) P. ginseng No Qi-deficiency [19]
Stavro PM et al. (2006) 3 Blood pressure and renal function Hypertension (52) P. quinquefolius Inappropriate herb species [49]
Wiklund IK et al. (1999) N/A Quality of life & physiological parameters Symptomatic postmenopausal women (384) P. ginseng Inappropriate herb species [51]
Positive results       
Cicero AF et al. (2004) 2 Quality of life Elderly hypertensive and digitalized (20) Acanthopanax senticosus Appropriate herb species [53]
de Andrade E et al. (2007) 2 Sexual function Erectile dysfunction (60) P. ginseng Qi-Deficiency [44]
Ellis JM et al. (2002) 5 Quality of life Healthy young (30) P. ginseng Marginal Qi-deficiency [48]
Gross D et al. (2002) N/A Respiratory function Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (92) P. ginseng Qi-Deficiency [22]
Hong B et al. (2002) 3 Sexual function Erectile dysfunction (45) P. ginseng Qi-Deficiency [45]
Kim JH et al. (2006) 3 Quality of life Cancer (53) P. ginseng Qi-Deficiency [23]
Liang MT et al. (2005) 3 Endurance exercise Untrained adults (29) P. notoginseng Appropriate herb species [54]
McElhaney JE et al. (2004) 3 Acute respiratory illness Sub healthy seniors(198) P. quinquefolius Qi-Deficiency [24]
McElhaney JE et al. (2006) 5 Acute respiratory illness Sub healthy adults and seniors (43) P. quinquefolius Qi-Deficiency [46]
Predy GN et al. (2005) 5 Cold Sub healthy adults (323) P. quinquefolius Qi-Deficiency [25]
  1. *Trial quality evaluation scale [47]
  2. 0–2: poor quality
  3. 3–5: high quality
  4. N/A: full text unavailable for quality evaluation