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Table 1 Characteristics of included trials of moxibustion, acupuncture and other acupoint stimulation for breech presentation

From: Moxibustion and other acupuncture point stimulation methods to treat breech presentation: a systematic review of clinical trials

Study ID Design Sample size Age (year) (Rx/control) Gestation age (week) (Rx/control) Intervention Control Outcomes
Cardini 2005 [14] RCT 123 31 33 moxibustion on Zhiyin no treatment cephalic presentation
Cardini 1998 [6] RCT 260 25.5/25.2 33/33 moxibustion on Zhiyin no treatment number of cephalic presentation, foetal activity; number and causes of caesarean deliveries, spontaneous and induced vaginal deliveries, Apgar score, adverse events
Huang 1990 [20] RCT 587 NA 28–32 moxibustion on Zhiyin no treatment or knee-chest position cephalic presentation
Yang 2006 [13] RCT 206 23.1–30.3 28–34 moxibustion on Zhiyin plus knee-chest position knee-chest position cephalic presentation, adverse events
Lin 2002 [18] RCT 122 21–38 30–37 moxibustion on Zhiyin knee-chest position cephalic presentation
Peng 2006 [12] RCT 80 21–36 30–34 moxibustion on Zhiyin knee-chest position cephalic presentation
Chen 2004 [16] RCT 142 22–38/22–39 30–34/30–34 moxibustion on Zhiyin plus raising buttocks method raising buttocks method cephalic presentation
Habek 2003 [17] RCT 67 22 ± 3.1/23 ± 1.3 34–37 acupuncture on Zhiyin no treatment cephalic presentation
Neri 2004 [15] RCT 240 31.7+4.7/30.1+3.6 33.5+0.6/33.7+0.7 acupuncture plus moxibustion on Zhiyin no treatment cephalic presentation, adverse events
Ye 1998 [19] RCT 263 28.35 28–36/28–33 laser stimulation on Zhiyin knee-chest position plus pelvis rotating cephalic presentation
Liang 2004 [21] CCT 320 NA 28 moxibustion on Zhiyin knee-chest position cephalic presentation
Xiong 1991 [26] CCT 60 20–28/20–28 32–36/32–36 moxibustion on Zhiyin knee-chest position cephalic presentation
Wu 1995 [23] CCT 820 20–37 20–37 moxibustion on Zhiyin plus raising buttocks method or laser stimulation on Zhiyin raising buttocks method or knee-chest position cephalic presentation
Jiang 1993 [25] CCT 382 20–38 30–40 laser stimulation on Zhiyin knee-chest position cephalic presentation
Qin 1989 [27] CCT 150 NA 30–37 ear acupuncture knee-chest position cephalic presentation
Kanakura 2001 [22] CCT 548 28.4 28 (minimal) moxibustion or electro-acupuncture no treatment cephalic presentation
Cardini 1993 [24] CCT 41 20–37 22–31 moxibustion on Zhiyin no treatment cephalic presentation