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Table 2 Efficacy of moxibustion, acupuncture or other acupoint stimulations for the correction of breech presentation

From: Moxibustion and other acupuncture point stimulation methods to treat breech presentation: a systematic review of clinical trials

  Treatment (n/N, %) Control (n/N, %) Relative benefit (95% CI) P value
Randomized controlled trial
Moxibustion on Zhiyin vs no treatment
Cardini 1998 [6] 98/129 (76.0) 62/106 (58.5) 1.30 [1.08, 1.57] 0.006
Huang 1990 [20] 150/193 (77.7) 106/200 (53.0) 1.47 [1.26, 1.71] < 0.00001
Cardini 2005 [14] 22/65 (33.8) 21/58 (36.2) 0.93 [0.58, 1.51] 0.78
Meta-analysis 270/387 (69.8) 189/364 (51.9) 1.35 [1.20, 1.51] < 0.00001
Acupuncture on Zhiyin vs no treatment
Habek 2003 [17] 31/34 (91.2) 26/33 (78.8) 1.16 [0.94, 1.42] 0.16
Acupuncture plus moxibustion on Zhiyin vs no treatment
Neri 2004 [15] 61/120 (50.8) 43/120 (35.8) 1.42 [1.05, 1.91] 0.02
Moxibustion on Zhiyin vs knee-chest position
Huang 1990 [20] 150/193 (77.7) 115/194 (59.3) 1.31 [1.14, 1.51] 0.0001
Lin 2002 [18] 58/63 (92.1) 31/59 (52.5) 1.75 [1.36, 2.26] < 0.0001
Peng 2006 [12] 16/40 (40.0) 20/40 (50.0) 0.80 [0.49, 1.31] 0.73
Meta-analysis* 224/296 (75.7) 166/293 (56.7) 1.30 [0.95, 1.79] 0.1
Moxibustion on Zhiyin plus raising buttocks method vs raising buttocks method
Chen 2004 [16] 67/73 (91.8) 36/69 (52.2) 1.76 [1.39, 2.23] 0.02
Moxibustion on Zhiyin plus knee-chest position vs knee-chest position
Yang 2006 [13] 90/103 (87.4) 77/103 (74.8) 1.17 [1.02, 1.34] < 0.00001
Meta-analysis 157/176 (89.2) 113/172 (65.7) 1.36 [1.21, 1.54] < 0.00001
Laser stimulation on Zhiyin vs knee-chest position plus pelvis rotating
Ye 1998 [19] 108/133 (81.2) 73/130 (56.2) 1.45 [1.22, 1.72] < 0.0001
Controlled clinical trial     
Moxibustion on Zhiyin vs no treatment
Kanakura 2001 [22] 123/133 (92.5) 165/224 (73.7) 1.26 [1.15, 1.38] < 0.00001
Cardini 1993 [24] 16/23 (69.6) 7/18 (38.9) 1.79 [0.94, 3.39] 0.07
Meta-analysis 139/156 (89.1) 172/242 (71.1) 1.29 [1.17, 1.42] < 0.00001
Acupuncture on Zhiyin vs no treatment
Kanakura 2001 [22] 171/191 (89.5) 160/217 (73.7) 1.21 [1.11, 1.33] < 0.001
Moxibustion on Zhiyin vs knee-chest position
Liang 2004 [21] 144/160 (90.0) 126/160 (78.8) 1.14 [1.04, 1.26] 0.007
Xiong 1991 [26] 29/30 (96.7) 16/30 (53.3) 1.81 [1.29, 2.55] 0.003
Meta-analysis* 173/190 (91.1) 142/190 (74.7) 6.31 [0.63, 63.17] 0.12
Laser stimulation on Zhiyin vs knee-chest position
Jiang YH 1993 [25] 218/278 (78.4) 66/104 (63.5) 1.24 [1.05, 1.45] 0.003
Wu 1995 [23] 314/432 (72.7) 25/51 (49.0) 1.48 [1.11, 1.97] 0.0007
Meta-analysis 532/710 (74.9) 91/155 (58.7) 1.30 [1.10, 1.54] < 0.00001
Ear acupuncture vs knee-chest position
Qin 1989 [27] 84/99 (84.8) 26/39 (66.7) 1.27 [1.00, 1.61] 0.02
Moxibustion on Zhiyin plus raising buttocks method vs raising buttocks method
Wu 1995 [23] 103/192 (53.6) 76/145 (52.4) 1.02 [0.84, 1.25] 0.82
Laser stimulation on Zhiyin vs raising buttocks method
Wu 1995 [23] 314/432 (72.7) 76/145 (52.4) 1.39 [1.18, 1.64] 0.00001
  1. *Random effect model