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Table 1 Possible pharmacological actions of Sophora japonica on cerebral infarction

From: Effects of Sophora japonica flowers (Huaihua) on cerebral infarction

Pharmacological actions Related components Possible mechanisms
Anti-oxidative effects flavonoid scavenges superoxide anion and free radicals [8]
polysaccharides scavenges hydroxyl and superoxide anion free radicals [9]
quercetin and rutin scavenge free radicals [10]
rutin inhibits the conversion of superoxide anion to hydroxyl radicals[11]
irisolidone inhibits lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and reduced apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide[12]
Anti-inflammatory effects quercetin and rutin inhibit microglial activation, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release, and apoptosis [25]
rutin reduce IL-1β mRNA expression [26]
Anti-platelet aggregation effects biochanin A, irisolidone, genistein and tectoridin inhibit arachidonic acid- and thromboxane A2- induced platelet aggregation [2]
quercetin inhibits free calcium increase within platelets [27]
Cardiovascular effects Sophora japonica decoction reduces cardiac muscle contractility and reduces heart rate [30, 31]
Quercetin stabilizes capillary integrity [32]
rutin, quercetin and tannin reduce capillary perameability [31, 33]
Isorhamnetin increases capillary permeability [1]