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Table 1 Cross-table of dual patterns classified simultaneously by categories of dual pattern similarity and the incremental combination of the Four Examinations.

From: Misdiagnosis and undiagnosis due to pattern similarity in Chinese medicine: a stochastic simulation study using pattern differentiation algorithm

Four Examinations Dual pattern similarity, S Total
No similarity Negligible Weak Moderate Strong Perfect
Ip 1708 632 220 57 6 5 2628
Ip+AO 1654 748 182 37 2 5 2628
Ip+AO+Iq 1339 1253 32 3 1 0 2628
Ip+AO+Iq+p 1088 1480 54 5 1 0 2628
  1. Ip = Inspection; AO = Auscultation and Olfaction; Iq = Inquiry; P = Palpation.
  2. For S≥: γ = 0.192, 95% CI = [0.165, 0.219], P < 0.01; γ*2 ≈ 2%.
  3. For S>: γ = -0.646, 95% CI = [-0.688, -0.604], P < 0.01; γ*2 ≈ 24%.