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Table 2 Cross-table of simulated cases and controls classified simultaneously by pattern differentiation outcome and the incremental combination of the Four Examinations

From: Misdiagnosis and undiagnosis due to pattern similarity in Chinese medicine: a stochastic simulation study using pattern differentiation algorithm

  Pattern differentiation outcome Missing Total
Four Examinations Correct diagnosis Misdiagnosis Undiagnosis
True positive      
Ip 3730 1060 2410 100 7300
Ip+AO 4380 1052 1768 100 7300
Ip+AO+Iq 6685 483 132 0 7300
Ip+AO+Iq+p 6754 441 105 0 7300
Total (TP) 21549 3036 4415 200 29200
True negative      
Ip 4707 25 2468 100 7300
Ip+AO 5458 27 1715 100 7300
Ip+AO+Iq 7124 6 170 0 7300
Ip+AO+Iq+p 7138 7 155 0 7300
Total (TN) 24427 65 4508 200 29200
Total (TP+TN) 45976 3101 8923 400 58400
  1. For TP: γ = -0.618, 95% CI = [-0.631, -0.606], P < 0.01; γ*2 ≈ 21%
  2. For TN: γ = -0.709, 95% CI = [-0.722, -0.695], P < 0.01; γ*2 ≈ 29%
  3. Ip = Inspection; AO = Auscultation and Olfaction; Iq = Inquiry; P = Palpation; TP = true positive cases; TN = true negative controls
  4. Note: Missing cases were due to the absence of the manifestations describing the inspection method. These values were not considered for statistical analysis.