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Table 3 Cross-table of true positive cases classified simultaneously by categories of pattern-dataset similarity and pattern differentiation outcome grouped by incremental combination of the Four Examinations

From: Misdiagnosis and undiagnosis due to pattern similarity in Chinese medicine: a stochastic simulation study using pattern differentiation algorithm

Outcomes per Examination Pattern-dataset similarity, S* Total
No similarity Negligible Weak Moderate Strong Perfect
Ip        7300
Correct diagnosis 100 100 562 943 586 1439 3730
Misdiagnosis 0 0 18 132 109 801 1060
Undiagnosis 0 0 20 225 105 2060 2410
Missing - - - -   - 100
Ip+AO        7300
Correct diagnosis 100 200 369 1283 760 1668 4380
Misdiagnosis 0 0 15 164 761 712 1652
Undiagnosis 0 0 16 153 79 1520 1768
Missing - - - -   - 100
Ip+AO+Iq        7300
Correct diagnosis 0 100 1048 3638 1462 437 6685
Misdiagnosis 0 0 51 200 107 125 483
Undiagnosis 0 0 1 62 31 38 132
Missing - - - -   - 0
Ip+AO+Iq+p        7300
Correct diagnosis 0 0 671 3839 1840 404 6754
Misdiagnosis 0 0 22 205 133 81 441
Undiagnosis 0 0 7 56 27 15 105
Missing - - - -   - 0
  1. For Ip: γ = 0.684, 95% CI = [0.660, 0.708], P < 0.01; γ*2 ≈ 27%
  2. For Ip+AO: γ = 0.660, 95% CI = [0.634, 0.686], P < 0.01; γ*2 ≈ 25%
  3. For Ip+AO+Iq: γ = 0.398, 95% CI = [0.339, 0.458], P < 0.01; γ*2 ≈ 8%
  4. For Ip+AO+Iq+p: γ = 0.286, 95% CI = [0.217; 0.355], P < 0.01; γ*2 ≈ 4%
  5. Ip = Inspection; AO = Auscultation and Olfaction; Iq = Inquiry; P = Palpation.
  6. Note: Missing cases were due to the absence of the manifestations describing the inspection method. These values were not considered for statistical analysis.