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Table 1 Chinese medicine patterns of systemic arterial hypertension

From: Zangfu zheng (patterns) are associated with clinical manifestations of zang shang (target-organ damage) in arterial hypertension

Examination method Manifestations Patterns Target-organs
Inspection Flushed face A[8, 24] *
Grease and thick coating C[8, 24] CVD[51], HD[51]
Pale tongue E[8, 24] KD[43, 53]
Peeled tongue B[24] *
Red eyes A[8] CVD[40], KD[41]
Red tongue A[10, 24], B[8, 24] *
Yellow coating A[8, 24] CVD[51], HD[51]
Auscultation-Olfaction Aphasia D[8] CVD[47, 43]
Shortness of breath E[8, 24] HD[47, 43]
Inquiry Blurred vision B[8, 24] CVD[47], KD[44]
Congested feeling in the chest C[8, 24] HD[47]
Constipation A[8, 24] KD[45]
Convulsions D[8] CVD[44, 43]
Dizziness B[8, 24], C[8], E[24] CVD[47]
Excessive dreaming B[8] *
Fainting D[8] CVD[44]
Frequent nocturnal urination E[8, 24] KD[44]
Headache A[8, 10, 24], B[24], D[8] CVD[47, 44], KD[44]
Heavy limbs sensation C[8] CVD[52]
Impotence E[8, 24] *
Insomnia B[8, 24] CVD[48], HD[48], KD[48]
Irritability A[8, 10, 24] *
Mental fatigue E[8, 24] KD[45]
Nausea C[8, 24] CVD[44, 43], KD[46]
Numbness in feet and hands E[8] CVD[47, 43]
Numbness in the limbs B[8, 24], C[8] CVD[47, 43]
Palpitation C[8] HD[47, 43]
Severe dizziness D[8, 24] CVD[47]
Stroke D[8] CVD[47, 43]
Tinnitus A[10], B[8, 24], E[8, 24] CVD[42]
Vomiting C[8] CVD[52], KD[46]
Weak legs E[8] CVD[47, 43], KD[44]
Palpation Deep pulse E[8, 24] *
Fast pulse A[8, 24], B[8, 24] HD[47]
Slippery pulse C[8, 24] *
Strong pulse A[8] *
Thin pulse B[8],24, E[8, 24] *
Wiry pulse A[8, 10, 24], B[8, 24], C[8], D[24] *
  1. Chinese medicine classification and description of patterns and respective target-organs related to hypertension.
  2. Legends: A: Liver-fire blazing upwards; B: Kidney-yin deficiency and Liver-yang rising; C: Obstruction of phlegm and dampness of Heart/Liver/Gallbladder; D: Qi and blood deficiency leading to Liver-yang rising; E: Kidney-yin/yang deficiency; CVD: cerebrovascular and eye disease; HD: heart disease; KD: kidney disease. Manifestations not considered as related to specific target-organs were marked as * and were not used for inference about target-organ damage.