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Table 4 Descriptive statistics of manifestations

From: Zangfu zheng (patterns) are associated with clinical manifestations of zang shang (target-organ damage) in arterial hypertension

Manifestations Frequency of manifestations
Liver-fire blazing upwards (n = 8; 18.6%) Kidney-yin deficiency and Liver-yang rising (n = 30; 69.8%) Kidney-yin/yang deficiency (n = 5; 11.6%) Whole sample (n = 43; 100%)
red tongue 5 (100.0) 28 (84.8) 2 (40.0) 35 (81.4)
headache 2 (40.0) 26 (78.8) 3 (60.0) 31 (72.1)
irritability 2 (40.0) 27 (81.8) 0 (0) 29 (67.4)
palpitation 1 (20.0) 21 (63.6) 4 (80.0) 26 (60.5)
blurred vision 1 (20.0) 21 (63.6) 3 (60.0) 25 (58.1)
insomnia 0 (0) 23 (69.7) 2 (40.0) 25 (58.1)
mental fatigue 2 (40.0) 19 (57.6) 4 (80.0) 25 (58.1)
frequent nocturnal urination 4 (80.0) 16 (48.5) 4 (80.0) 24 (55.8)
numbness in feet and hands 0 (0) 19 (57.6) 5 (100) 24 (55.8)
shortness of breath 2 (40.0) 19 (57.6) 3 (60.0) 24 (55.8)
heavy limbs sensation 1 (20.0) 17 (51.5) 4 (80.0) 22 (51.2)
wiry pulse 4 (80.0) 17 (51.5) 1 (20.0) 22 (51.2)
tinnitus 2 (40.0) 16 (48.5) 3 (60.0) 21 (48.8)
red eyes 2 (40.0) 14 (42.4) 4 (80.0) 20 (46.5)
constipation 3 (60.0) 14 (42.4) 2 (40.0) 19 (44.2)
peeled tongue 2 (40.0) 17 (51.5) 0 (0) 19 (44.2)
numbness in the limbs 1 (20.0) 16 (48.5) 1 (20.0) 18 (41.9)
dizziness 1 (20.0) 13 (39.4) 3 (60.0) 17 (39.5)
nausea 1 (20.0) 15 (45.5) 1 (20.0) 17 (39.5)
congested feeling in the chest 1 (20.0) 13 (39.4) 2 (40.0) 16 (37.2)
weak legs 3 (60.0) 12 (36.4) 1 (20.0) 16 (37.2)
excessive dreaming 0 (0) 10 (30.3) 1 (20.0) 11 (25.6)
flushed face 1 (20.0) 8 (24.2) 2 (40.0) 11 (25.6)
thin pulse 0 (0) 9 (27.3) 2 (40.0) 11 (25.6)
impotent 1 (20.0) 7 (21.2) 2 (40.0) 10 (23.3)
strong pulse 3 (60.0) 5 (15.2) 1 (20.0) 9 (20.9)
pale tongue 0 (0) 5 (15.2) 3 (60.0) 8 (18.6)
vomiting 0 (0) 7 (21.2) 1 (20.0) 8 (18.6)
fainting 0 (0) 5 (15.2) 2 (40.0) 7 (16.3)
slippery pulse 1 (20.0) 5 (15.2) 1 (20.0) 7 (16.3)
yellow coating 3 (60.0) 4 (12.1) 0 (0) 7 (16.3)
fast pulse 1 (20.0) 4 (12.1) 0 (0) 5 (11.6)
severe dizziness 0 (0) 4 (12.1) 1 (20.0) 5 (11.6)
aphasia 0 (0) 3 (9.1) 1 (20.0) 4 (9.3)
stroke 1 (20.0) 2 (6.1) 1 (20.0) 4 (9.3)
deep pulse 0 (0) 1 (3.0) 2 (40.0) 3 (7.0)
convulsions 0 (0) 1 (3.0) 0 (0) 1 (2.3)
  1. Frequencies of manifestations in the studied sample according to Zangfu patterns (manifestations were arranged in decreasing order of occurrence).
  2. Values are shown as: absolute frequency (%).