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Table 2 Representative examples of FINS identification of Chinese medicinal materials

From: Forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) for the authentication of Chinese medicinal materials

Year Test material DNA locus Major finding Reference
2002 Shihu samples and Dendrobium species ITS 4 inspected samples of 'Fengdou' were identified [7]
2003 Rhinoceros horns, Rhinoceros species and other mammals Cyt b 2 samples were white rhinoceros and 4 samples were dark rhinoceros [8]
2004 Snake blood and meat, and 90 snake species Cyt b 6 unknown samples were identified as Python molurus and P. reticulates [42]
2005 Chinese sika deer and Cervus Nippon subspecies Mitochondrial control region 2 suspected samples were derived from wild population of C. Nippon kopschi [43]
2007 Fresh and herbal samples of Dangshen 5S rDNA spacer 2 samples of Hong Dangshen were identified as Codonopsis pilosula var. modesta [44]
2008 Snake venom 16S rDNA 1 snake venom was identified as derived from Naja atra [45]
2009 Shihu samples and Dendrobium species ITS Identification of 10 Shihu samples: 6 were D. officinale, 1 was D. nobile and 3 were D. denneanum [46]
  Shihu samples and Dendrobium species MatK Identification of 4 Shihu samples: 3 were D. officinale and 1 were D. nobile [47]
  Shihu samples and Dendrobium species TrnH-psbA Identification of various 'Fengdou' Dendrobium species 20 shihu samples [48]
  Snake venom 16S rDNA 4 snake venom samples were all genuine [49]
2010 Baihuasheshecao samples and Hedyotis species ITS 4 out of 7 samples were adulterated by H. corymbosa [50]
  Madouling samples, Aristolochia, Cardiocrinum and Lilium species TrnH-psbA, trnL-trnF 2 out of 4 Madouling samples from Taiwan and Yunnan were substituted by C. giganteum var. yunnanense [51]
2011 Cordyceps samples and related Cordyceps species EF-1α, ITS, nrLSU, rpb1 3 Cordyceps samples were genuine derived from C. sinensis, 5 samples were C. gunni from China and 1 sample was C. gunni from Tasmania [6]
  Leigongteng samples, Tripterygium and Celastrus species 5S rDNA spacer, ITS 3 samples of Leigongteng were genuine herb derived from T. wilfordii, 2 samples were adulterants derived from Celastrus species [52]