Leishmanicidal activity of cells harvested from the peritoneal cavity of EA-treated mice. Mice were treated with EA (15/30 Hz) at the Zusanli acupoint (ST36) for 20 min/d for 5 d. After the final EA session, the mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1 × 107 L. major promastigotes. At 3 h after infection, the mice were euthanized and their peritoneal cells were harvested. Their mononuclear cells were then purified with Lymphoprep® solution. Slides of cells were prepared before culture (w/o culture) and after 48 h of culture in the absence (medium) or presence of 5 ng/mL IL-4 or 5 ng/mL IFNγ. The slides were stained with the Instant Prov Kit and analyzed under a light microscope. The data are represented as mean ± SD of the percentages of infected cells (A) or numbers of parasites/infected cell (B). Panel C shows cells after 48 h of culture under different conditions. The sham-treated mice received only needle insertion into a non-acupoint (gluteal muscle) without electrical stimulation. There were nine mice in each group. *P < 0.05, significant difference between sham- and EA-treated mice in the same culture conditions by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test; §P < 0.05, significant difference between cells from the same mouse group under different culture conditions by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test.