α-MG decreases LPS-mediated p38 MAPK activation. U937 cells were treated with α-MG in the presence of 0.1 ng/mL LPS for 4 h and then lysed. The cell lysates were subjected to Western blotting analysis with ELK-1, MMK3/MMK6, and MAPKAPK-2. Western blots with anti-phospho- ELK-1, anti-phospho- MMK3/MMK6, and anti-phospho- MAPKAPK-2. β-tubulin was evaluated as a loading control, and the protein expression levels were normalized by the corresponding β-tubulin expression levels. Data are expressed as fold phosphorylation normalized to LPS (12 nM α-MG, closed bars; 6 nM α-MG, open bars). All experiments were performed in triplicate and repeated independently three times. *P < 0.05, significant difference from LPS treatment.