Quantification of identified metabolites in the different ginseng extracts. The peaks associated with identified metabolites in all of the 1H-NMR spectra were integrated to yield measures of the concentrations in the extracts relative to the mean value for P. notoginseng (basal level). The values are expressed as means ± SD (N = 5). *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001, by Student’s t-test (P values are Bonferroni-corrected for multiple testing.). Abbreviations: Q, P. quinquefolius; H, P. ginseng (Hebei); N, P. notoginseng; J, P. ginseng (Jilin).