Quantification of the ginsenoside peak at 3.358 ppm from different ginseng extracts. (A) 1H NMR spectra of ginsenosides showing the resonance of Rg1 (solid) and Rd (broken line). (B) The ginsenoside peak at 3.358 ppm was integrated to yield the measurements of the ginsenoside concentrations in the extracts relative to the mean value of P. notoginseng (basal level). The values are expressed as means ± SD (N = 5). *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, by Student’s t-test (P values are Bonferroni-corrected for multiple testing.).