Cytotoxic effect of 20 (S)- Rh
, CK , PD and PPD on HK-1 cells. Cells were treated with different ginsenosides for 24 h in 1% FBS supplemented RPMI 1640 medium. The cell viability was determined by MTT assay and expressed as a percentage of solvent control in each experiment. Results were presented as mean ± SD from three independent experiments. **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 20 (S)-Rh2 compared to the DMSO control group. #P < 0.05 and ###P < 0.001 CK compared to the DMSO control group. +P < 0.05, ++P < 0.01 and +++P < 0.001 PD compared to the ethanol control group. §P < 0.05 and §§§P < 0.001 PPD compared to the DMSO control group.