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Table 1 Comparisons of CM applications, pharmacological actions, and autophagy effects of Chaihu

From: Autophagic effects of Chaihu (dried roots of Bupleurum Chinense DC or Bupleurum scorzoneraefolium WILD)

CM applications Pharmacological effects Autophagic effects
Improvement of alternating chills and fever Antipyresis Antibacteria, antivirus, and anti-endotoxin Immunomodulation Immunomodulation Anti-pathogens Modulation of cytokine secretion Removal of toxic mutant proteins and aggregates
Modulation of inflammatory symptoms and diseases Immunomodulation Antibacteria and antivirus Modulation of cytokine secretion Immunomodulation by pathogen and cytokine control Removal of abnormal protein aggregates Detoxification and degradation of toxins and inflammatory proteins
Reduction of distention and pain in the chest and flank Improvement of digestive functions: loss of appetite, dyspepsia, and flatulence Hepatoprotection Anti-inflammation Anti-fibrosis Promotion of pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion Cellular catabolism for removal of waste materials Immunomodulation Anti-pathogens Removal of toxic mutant proteins and aggregates Regulation of lipid metabolism
Improvement of circulation or stasis of blood and body fluid, and accumulation of phlegm Promotion of cancer cell death Reduction in cancer cell proliferation Immunomodulation, apoptosis, and anti-angiogenesis Maintenance of genomic stability Promotion of autophagic cell death Elimination of damaged proteins and cytotoxic substances
Improvement of emotional instability Reduction in plasma lipid levels Hormonal regulation Glucose metabolism Regulation of lipid metabolism Removal of toxic mutant proteins and aggregates