Multiplex PCR in differentiation of ginseng and American ginseng. (A) Nucleotide sequences of the forward P. ginseng-specific primer (Pgi_SPF1) with comparison to the aligned reference sequences of P. ginseng (Genbank accession number: EF031239, EF031240) and P. quinquefolius (Genbank accession number: EF031236, EF031241). Open box indicates the primer sequence, dots and closed boxes indicate nucleotides identical and different from the primer sequence, respectively. (B and C) Amplification of the extracted DNA from two vouchers of pulverized (B)
P. ginseng (ICM 2005–2750, ICM 2005–2779) and (C)
P. quinquefolius (ICM 1713, ICM 901276) samples by multiplex PCR using primer pair 8. Samples in herbal decoction were boiled for 30 min (lanes 1–2), 60 min (lanes 3–4) and 120 min (lanes 5–6), respectively. Lane 7 is the positive control with DNA from the concerned herbal sample and lane 8 is the negative control without DNA. Lane M represents the DNA size ladder.