PCR amplification of extracted DNA in the prescriptions. (A) Two herbs decoction: Decoction of Ginseng and Prepared Aconite. The prescription was boiled for 30 min (lanes 1 and 5) and 60 min (lanes 2 and 6). Extracted DNA was amplified by primer pair 7 (lanes 1–2) for P. ginseng and primer pair 1 (lanes 5–6) for A. carmichaeli. Lanes 3 and 7 are positive controls with DNA from the concerned herbal sample and lanes 4 and 8 are negative controls without DNA. (B-E) Four herbs decoction: Ginseng and Ginger Combination. The prescription was boiled for 30 min (lane 1), 60 min (lane 2), 90 min (lane 3), 120 min (lane 4), 150 min (lane 5) and 180 min (lane 6). Primers specific for (B)
A. macrocephala (Primer pair 2), (C)
G. uralensis (Primer pair 3), (D)
P. ginseng (Primer pair 7) and (E)
Z. officinale (Primer pair 10) were used to amplify the decoction DNA. Lane 7 is positive control with DNA from the concerned herbal sample and lane 8 is negative control without DNA. Lane M represents the DNA size ladder.