Study protocol. Animals were assigned to Sham (n = 10), HS (n = 10), Kae T (n = 10), and Kae PT (n = 10) groups. The HS group received an injection of 100-μL PBS (i.p.) at the end of the shock period. Kae T and Kae PT groups received an injection of kaempferol (i.p., 10 mg/kg BW, dissolved in 100-μL PBS) 90 min following or 12 h prior to the initiation of HS, respectively. Animals were sacrificed 6 h after the initiation of HS for blood and tissue sample collection.