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Table 2 Results of the two-stage Delphi method

From: SEED: the six excesses (Liu Yin) evaluation and diagnosis scale

Syndrome No. Item Stage 1 Stage 2
Mean (SD) Median Mean (SD) Median
Feng (wind) syndrome 1 Aversion to winda 8.03 (1.06) 8 8.28 (0.96) 8
2 Floating pulsea 7.63 (1.41) 7 7.78 (0.87) 7
3 Itchy throata 7.25 (1.16) 7 7.41 (0.80) 7
4 Headachea 7.09 (1.30) 6 7.16 (0.51) 6.5
5 Headache and painful stiffness in napea 7.06 (1.34) 7 7.06 (0.80) 7
6 Floating and relaxed pulsea 7.00 (1.42) 6 7.28 (0.82) 7
7 Clear snivela 6.97 (1.23) 7 7.09 (0.69) 7
8 Sneezinga 6.94 (1.34) 5 7.13 (0.79) 5
9 Pain at unfixed location 6.88 (2.03) 6 6.91 (1.09) 6
10 Painful stiffness in nape and back 6.84 (1.22) 6 6.84 (0.95) 5
11 Floating and rapid pulsea 6.81 (1.42) 7 7.19 (0.82) 7
12 Generalized paina 6.75 (1.59) 7 7.06 (0.67) 7
13 Nasal congestiona 6.69 (1.31) 7 7.13 (0.75) 7
14 Cough, productivea 6.59 (1.46) 7 7.06 (0.67) 7
15 Floating and weak pulsea 6.53 (1.65) 7 6.59 (1.07) 7
16 Aches and pains in joints 6.44 (1.39) 5.5 6.69 (0.59) 5
17 Generalized itching 6.44 (1.68) 5.5 6.44 (1.37) 5
18 Thin white fur 6.38 (1.79) 6 6.50 (1.05) 6
19 Pale red tongue 6.28 (1.90) 6 6.41 (0.98) 6
20 Deviated eye and mouth 6.16 (1.92) 8 5.84 (1.44) 8
21 Opisthotonosa 5.63 (2.23) 7 5.09 (1.40) 7
22 Trismus (lockjaw)a 5.53 (2.17) 7 5.06 (1.37) 7
23 Hemiplegia 5.22 (2.35) 6 5.13 (1.43) 6
Han (coldness) syndrome 1 Aversion to colda 8.22 (0.87) 8.5 8.41 (0.61) 8
2 Floating and tight pulsea 7.66 (1.10) 7 7.78 (0.79) 7
3 Preference for hot drinksa 7.53 (1.37) 7 7.53 (0.67) 7
4 Clear phlegma 7.53 (0.98) 7 7.47 (0.57) 7
5 Clear snivela 7.41 (0.95) 6 7.50 (0.67) 7
6 A lot of clear and white phlegma 7.38 (1.07) 7 7.34 (0.60) 7
7 Generalized paina 7.13 (1.34) 7 7.41 (0.67) 7
8 Headache and painful stiffness in napea 7.13 (1.18) 7 7.28 (0.58) 7
  9 Shiveringa 7.06 (1.37) 7 7.22 (0.91) 7
10 Ache in limbsa 7.00 (1.39) 7 7.28 (0.73) 7
11 Cold body and limbsa 7.00 (1.87) 7 7.28 (0.96) 7
12 Tight pulsea 6.94 (1.39) 6 7.13 (1.16) 6
13 Aches and pains in jointsa 6.88 (1.50) 6 7.28 (0.58) 6
14 White and moist fur 6.88 (1.50) 6 6.81 (1.00) 6
15 Not thirstya 6.84 (1.32) 6 7.03 (0.93) 6
16 White, moist and thin fura 6.84 (1.51) 7 6.94 (0.95) 7
17 No desire to drink 6.84 (1.27) 6 6.81 (0.90) 6
18 Clear urinea 6.81 (1.64) 7 6.78 (0.75) 7
19 Painful stiffness in nape and backa 6.78 (1.72) 7 6.91 (0.95) 7
20 White and thin fur 6.78 (1.72) 6 6.84 (0.95) 6
21 Absence of sweatinga 6.69 (1.64) 7 7.13 (1.01) 7
22 Cold feeling on nape and back 6.69 (1.45) 7 6.94 (0.76) 6
23 Headachea 6.63 (1.36) 7 7.06 (0.95) 8
24 Cough, productive 6.53 (1.24) 7 6.75 (0.72) 6
25 White fur 6.53 (1.78) 7 6.59 (1.01) 6
26 Sloppy stool 6.50 (1.32) 7 6.66 (1.00) 6
27 Reversal cold of extremities 6.50 (1.80) 7 6.59 (1.24) 6
28 White and slippery fura 6.44 (1.63) 7 6.50 (1.02) 7
29 Nasal congestion 6.38 (1.36) 7 6.81 (0.63) 6
30 Sneezing 6.38 (1.34) 6 6.81 (0.64) 6
31 Lumbar pain or achea 6.13 (1.54) 8 6.53 (0.67) 8
32 Breathlessnessa 5.88 (1.52) 7 6.22 (1.10) 7
Shu (summer heat) syndrome 1 Thirstya 7.97 (1.00) 8 7.88 (0.71) 8
2 Fevera 7.91 (1.09) 8 8.00 (0.80) 8
3 High fevera 7.84 (1.05) 8 7.88 (0.66) 8
4 Profuse sweatinga 7.81 (1.57) 8 7.53 (0.92) 7
5 Surging pulsea 7.66 (0.94) 8 7.66 (0.79) 7
6 Fatiguea 7.59 (1.21) 7 7.72 (0.73) 7
7 Aversion to heata 7.56 (1.41) 7 7.72 (0.73) 7
8 Reddish yellow urinea 7.56 (0.88) 7 7.47 (0.67) 7
9 Red tonguea 7.53 (0.92) 6 7.63 (0.66) 6
  10 Surging but weak pulse with dipped finger tipa 7.53 (1.02) 6 7.28 (1.02) 6
11 Desire to drinka 7.47 (1.41) 7 7.53 (0.67) 7
12 Unclear head and eyesighta 7.44 (1.01) 7 7.03 (1.06) 7
13 Rapid pulsea 7.34 (1.29) 8 7.28 (0.68) 8
14 Heavy or tired limbsa 7.31 (1.38) 8 7.25 (0.84) 7
15 Reddened complexiona 7.28 (0.85) 7 7.22 (0.61) 7
16 Preference for cold drinksa 7.28 (1.51) 7 7.13 (0.87) 7
17 Shortness of urinea 7.22 (1.04) 6 7.06 (0.95) 6
18 Red lipsa 7.19 (0.74) 7 7.19 (0.64) 6
19 Agitationa 7.13 (1.04) 7 7.00 (0.76) 7
20 Lethargya 7.03 (1.26) 7 6.78 (0.87) 7
21 Dry tongue with little salivaa 7.00 (0.95) 8 7.09 (0.93) 7
22 Anorexiaa 6.81 (1.15) 8 6.81 (0.90) 8
23 Dizzinessa 6.50 (1.22) 8 6.47 (1.08) 8
24 Stomach refluxa 6.38 (1.07) 7 6.34 (0.90) 7
25 Headachea 6.19 (1.51) 7 6.38 (1.10) 7
Shi (dampness) syndrome 1 Heavy or tired limbsa 8.19 (0.86) 7 8.09 (0.73) 7
2 Heavy-headednessa 8.09 (0.86) 8 8.06 (0.76) 8
3 Fatiguea 7.81 (0.90) 7 7.81 (0.74) 7
4 White and slimy fura 7.75 (1.05) 7 7.72 (0.68) 7
5 Unclear head and eyesighta 7.50 (0.67) 8 7.50 (0.67) 8
6 Viscous feeling in oral cavitya 7.50 (0.95) 7 7.47 (0.62) 7
7 Thick and slimy fura 7.47 (1.16) 7 7.63 (0.79) 7
8 Soggy pulsea 7.41 (1.34) 8 7.47 (1.02) 8
9 Edematous swelling in face and limbsa 7.41 (1.10) 7 7.13 (1.10) 7
10 Edema, generalized 7.28 (1.53) 6 6.94 (0.95) 6
11 Rash 7.25 (1.30) 6 6.97 (1.09) 6
12 Sloppy stoola 7.22 (1.21) 7 7.38 (0.61) 7
13 Slippery pulsea 7.19 (1.06) 7 7.22 (0.79) 7
14 Soggy and relaxed pulsea 7.19 (1.35) 7 7.19 (0.90) 7
15 White and slippery fura 7.19 (1.40) 6 7.19 (0.74) 6.5
16 No desire to drinka 7.19 (1.23) 6 7.00 (0.88) 7
17 Yellow and slimy fura 7.19 (1.18) 7 6.97 (1.03) 7
  18 Slippery fura 7.13 (1.43) 7 7.16 (0.72) 7
19 Soft stoola 6.97 (1.36) 6 7.22 (0.61) 7
20 Anorexiaa 6.97 (1.40) 6 7.22 (0.71) 6
21 Dizzinessa 6.94 (1.46) 7 7.13 (0.83) 7
22 Lethargya 6.94 (1.34) 7 7.09 (0.89) 7
23 White and moist fura 6.94 (1.32) 7 6.97 (0.78) 7
24 Stool with dischargea 6.94 (1.32) 7 6.94 (0.72) 7
25 Oppression in chesta 6.91 (1.42) 7 7.13 (0.83) 7
26 White and moist fura 6.91 (1.53) 7 7.13 (0.75) 7
27 Not thirstya 6.91 (1.17) 7 6.97 (0.78) 7
28 Soggy and rapid pulsea 6.91 (1.23) 7 6.97 (0.90) 7
29 Dyspepsia 6.91 (1.42) 7 6.81 (1.00) 6
30 Jaundicea 6.91 (1.47) 7 6.78 (1.16) 7
31 Mild fevera 6.88 (1.31) 7 7.09 (0.59) 7
32 Stomach refluxa 6.78 (1.24) 8 6.84 (0.81) 8
33 Gastric stuffinessa 6.75 (1.46) 7 7.06 (0.76) 7
34 Vaginal dischargea 6.75 (1.46) 8 7.06(0.76) 8
35 A lot of clear and white phlegma 6.75 (1.34) 7 7.00 (0.51) 7
36 Aches and pains in jointsa 6.72 (1.35) 7 7.03 (0.47) 7
37 White fura 6.66 (1.49) 7 6.91 (0.78) 7
38 Vomitinga 6.59 (1.24) 7 6.56 (0.98) 7
39 Ache in limbsa 6.50 (1.32) 7 6.72 (0.58) 7
40 Generalized paina 6.44 (1.48) 6 6.75 (0.50) 7
Zao (dryness) syndrome 1 Dry throata 8.16 (0.72) 8 8.17 (0.66) 8
2 Dry nasal cavitya 8.06 (0.84) 7 7.90 (0.49) 6
3 Dry lipsa 8.06 (0.88) 8 7.79 (0.49) 8
4 Dry skina 7.84 (0.92) 8 7.83 (0.54) 8
5 Dry tongue with little fluida 7.75 (1.05) 8 7.66 (0.55) 8
6 Cough, nonproductivea 756 (1.08) 6 7.62 (0.62) 6
7 Thirstya 7.38 (1.43) 8 7.24 (0.83) 7.5
8 Hard bound or dry stoola 7.31 (1.28) 7 7.14 (0.49) 7
9 Sticky phlegma 7.31 (1.03) 7 7.14 (0.52) 7
10 Dry, thin and white fura 7.25 (1.34) 7 7.17 (0.80) 7
  11 Dry, yellow and white fura 7.25 (1.16) 8 7.00 (0.89) 8
12 Dry and yellow fura 7.06 (1.29) 7 6.79 (0.73) 7
13 Desire to drinka 7.00 (1.37) 7 7.10 (0.86) 7
14 Red tongue 6.97 (1.58) 6 6.90 (0.62) 6
15 Hoarsenessa 6.88 (1.21) 7 7.00 (0.53) 7
16 Pruritusa 6.81 (1.38) 7 7.10 (0.41) 7
17 Dyscheziaa 6.50 (1.34) 7 6.59 (0.95) 7
18 Cough, productivea 6.28 (1.17) 7 6.59 (0.82) 7
Huo (fire) syndrome 1 High fevera 7.97 (0.82) 8 8.00 (0.57) 8
2 Fevera 7.94 (1.08) 8 7.97 (0.54) 8
3 Rapid pulsea 7.94 (1.19) 8 7.84 (0.68) 8
4 Heat intolerancea 7.91 (0.86) 7 7.94 (0.72) 7
5 Thirstya 7.91 (1.06) 7 7.78 (0.61) 7
6 Red tonguea 7.88 (1.01) 7 7.75 (0.67) 7
7 Preference for cold drinksa 7.69 (1.00) 6 7.63 (0.66) 6
8 Surging pulsea 7.66 (1.18) 7 7.56 (0.72) 7
9 Reddish yellow urinea 7.63 (1.01) 7 7.59 (0.56) 7
10 Sore throata 7.56 (1.11) 5 7.69 (0.69) 5
11 Reddish eyea 7.56 (1.01) 7 7.56 (0.80) 7
12 Desire to drinka 7.56 (1.11) 7 7.53 (0.57) 7
13 Reddened complexiona 7.56 (0.84) 7 7.50 (0.72) 6
14 Erythema, blister or ulcera 7.53 (0.72) 7 7.47 (0.98) 7
15 Hard bound or dry stoola 7.50 (1.19) 7 7.44 (0.67) 7
16 Agitationa 7.50 (1.11) 6 7.38 (0.71) 6
17 Red lipsa 7.47 (1.02) 6 7.63 (0.71) 6
18 Sore swollen guma 7.47 (1.02) 7 7.44 (0.76) 6
19 Dry and yellow fura 7.44 (0.56) 7 7.47 (0.62) 8
20 Hotness in chesta 7.44 (1.01) 7 7.38 (0.55) 7
21 Red tip of tonguea 7.44 (1.05) 7 7.38 (0.71) 7
22 Red tip and margin of tonguea 7.44 (1.05) 7 7.38 (0.71) 7
23 Red dot on tonguea 7.41 (1.07) 8 7.41 (0.67) 8
24 Floating and rapid pulsea 7.38 (1.18) 7 7.41 (0.67) 7
25 Dry tongue with little fluida 7.38 (1.01) 7 7.31 (0.64) 7
26 Dry, yellow and white fura 7.38 (0.61) 7 7.28 (0.63) 7
Huo (fire) syndrome 27 Ulcer on tonguea 7.34 (1.26) 6 7.31 (0.74) 6
28 Aphthaa 7.34 (1.15) 8 7.28 (0.68) 8
29 Hot feeling around anusa 7.31 (1.09) 7 7.28 (1.02) 7
30 Dry lipsa 7.31 (1.38) 7 7.16 (0.57) 7
31 Profuse sweatinga 7.31 (1.00) 8 7.06 (0.88) 8
32 Purpuraa 7.31 (1.28) 7 7.06 (0.76) 7
33 String-like and rapid pulsea 7.28 (1.14) 8 7.16 (0.63) 7
34 Stinky diarrheaa 7.28 (1.16) 7 6.97 (0.61) 7
35 Slippery and rapid pulsea 7.22 (1.16) 7 7.22 (0.61) 7
36 Hotness in abdomena 7.22 (1.21) 7 7.19 (0.54) 7
37 Dry throata 7.22 (1.29) 7 7.16 (0.57) 6
38 Decreased urinationa 7.22 (1.04) 6 7.09 (0.69) 6
39 Dysuriaa 7.22 (0.97) 7 6.91 (0.93) 7
40 Skin wheala 7.16 (0.92) 8 7.16 (0.72) 8
41 Yellow phlegma 7.13 (1.24) 7 7.22 (0.55) 7
42 Epistaxisa 7.13 (1.36) 7 7.22 (0.66) 7
43 Sudden and watery diarrheaa 7.13 (1.01) 7 6.97 (1.12) 7
44 Yellow snivela 7.06 (1.37) 8 7.16 (0.63) 7
45 Dyscheziaa 7.06 (1.22) 6.5 7.09 (0.64) 6
46 Anguish in hearta 7.03 (1.26) 7.5 7.19 (0.64) 7
47 Dry nasal cavitya 7.00 (1.30) 7 7.09 (0.53) 7
48 Bitter taste in moutha 7.00 (1.34) 7 7.06 (0.80) 7
49 Rasha 6.97 (1.40) 7 7.03 (0.69) 7
50 Bloody stool with pusa 6.97 (0.93) 7 6.97 (1.09) 7
51 Difficulty falling asleepa 6.94 (1.32) 7 7.09 (0.69) 7
52 Delirious speecha 6.84 (1.42) 8 6.72 (0.99) 8
53 Gingival bleedinga 6.81 (1.40) 7 6.91 (1.03) 7
54 Nasal flaringa 6.75 (1.46) 7 6.81 (1.06) 7
55 Difficulty maintaining sleepa 6.72 (1.30) 7 6.91 (0.59) 7
56 Hemoptysisa 6.69 (1.40) 7 6.84 (0.85) 7
57 Hematuriaa 6.69 (1.49) 7 6.66 (1.10) 7
58 Headachea 6.56 (1.32) 8 6.41 (0.87) 7
59 Hematemesisa 6.44 (1.26) 8 6.44 (0.94) 8
60 Breathlessa 6.34 (1.26) 7.5 6.13 (0.94) 7
  61 Lethargya 6.31 (1.60) 7 6.31 (1.12) 7
62 Tinnitusa 5.84 (1.65) 7 5.94 (0.91) 7
  1. The translations were mainly according to “WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region [70]”
  2. SD standard deviation
  3. aThe 178 diagnostic items graded as 7.0 and above