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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of participants

From: Self-administered acupressure for treating adult psychiatric patients with constipation: a randomized controlled trial

  Total Frequency Treatment group Frequency Sham group Frequency Chi-square test
n = 68 % n = 33 % n = 35 % Test value P
Gender        0.108 0.743
 Male 44 64.7 22 66.7 22 62.9   
 Female 24 35.3 11 33.3 13 37.1   
Age        3.245 0.355
 20–30 7 10.3 5 15.2 2 5.7   
 30–40 15 22.1 5 15.2 10 28.6   
 40–50 24 35.3 11 33.3 13 37.1   
 50–60 22 32.4 12 36.4 10 28.6   
Diagnosis        5.020 0.170
 Schizophrenia 54 79.4 29 87.9 25 71.4   
 Bipolar disorder 1 1.5 1 3.0 0 0   
 Depression 1 1.5 0 0 1 2.9   
 Multiple diagnosis 12 17.6 3 9.1 9 25.7   
BMI        2.967 0.227
 <18.5 3 4.4 1 3.0 2 5.7   
 18.5–23.9 29 42.6 11 33.3 18 51.4   
 >23.9 36 52.9 21 63.6 15 42.9   
Classification of occupation        0.675 0.714
 Full-time 10 14.7 6 18.2 4 11.4   
 Part-time 10 14.7 5 15.2 5 14.3   
 Unemployment 48 70.6 22 66.7 26 74.3   
Highest education level        1.738 0.629
 Primary 26 38.2 14 42.4 12 38.4   
 Secondary 39 57.4 17 51.5 22 62.9   
 Tertiary 2 2.9 1 3 1 2.9   
 Not educated 1 1.5 1 3 0 0   
Living condition        0.021 0.870
 Private/public housing 53 77.9 26 78.8 27 77.1   
 Hostel 15 22.1 7 21.2 8 22.9   
Fluid intake        1.564 0.211
 <1500 ml 30 44.1 12 36.4 18 51.4   
 >1500 ml 38 55.9 21 63.6 17 48.6   
        0.041 0.839
Fiber intake         
 <20–35 g/day 40 58.8 19 57.6 21 60   
 >20–35 g/day 28 41.2 14 42.4 14 40   
Exercise more than twice per week        0.652 0.419
 Yes 26 38.2 11 33.3 15 42.9   
 No 42 61.8 22 66.7 20 57.1   
How long have you taken anti-psychotic drugs        1.244 0.265
 <24 months 7 10.3 2 6.1 5 14.3   
 >24 months 61 89.7 31 93.9 30 85.7   
Do you have constipation after taking anti-psychotic drugs        0.095 0.758
 Yes 42 61.8 21 63.6 21 60   
 No 26 38.2 12 36.4 14 40   
Do you taking laxatives or other drug for relieving constipation during study?        0.075 0.785
 Yes 30 44.1 14 42.4 16 45.7   
 No 38 55.9 19 57.6 19 54.3   
The total number of drugs used for relieving constipation        1.661 0.436
 0 39 57.4 19 57.6 20 57.1   
 1 16 23.5 6 18.2 10 28.6   
 >1 13 19.1 8 24.2 5 14.3   
The total number of drugs used for treating psychiatric illness        0.231 0.891
 1 17 25 9 27.3 8 22.9   
 2–3 39 57.4 18 54.5 21 60   
 >3 12 17.6 6 18.2 6 17.1