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Fig. 3 | Chinese Medicine

Fig. 3

From: Chinese medicines in the treatment of experimental diabetic nephropathy

Fig. 3

Schematic diagram integrating the Chinese medicine (CM) view on the holistic therapy and modern pathogenesis concepts of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The core shows the holistic view of DN under CM theory, which is based on the Yin-Yang and Five Elements theories. The regular functioning of the human body relies on the coordination of Yin and Yang in a unity of opposites, and the liver, heart, spleen, lung, and kidneys are respectively related to wood, fire, earth, metal, and water [53]. In particular, the spleen in CM is a functional organ that governs transport and transformation in a close relationship with the stomach and pancreas [7375]. This theory reflects the unification and integration together with the impact caused by the breakdown of the balance as a consequence of overacting and counteracting relationships, which is of practical significance in CM clinical practice. The peripheral annotations imply recent therapeutic strategies against DN specific to individual organs. The solid arrows denote interpromoting relationships. The dashed arrows indicate interacting/counteracting relationships

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