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Table 1 Chinese medicines used in the management of experimental diabetic nephropathy

From: Chinese medicines in the treatment of experimental diabetic nephropathy

Species Medicinal part Extract/Compound DN model Nephro-protective Mechanisms Pharmacodynamic indicators Duration Ref.
Eclipta alba (han-lian-cao) Ethanol extract STZ rat ↓α-glucosidase and aldose reductase activities FBG, HbA1C, urea, uric acid, UCr, insulin 3 weeks [76]
GymnemamontanumHook (shi-geng-teng) Ethanol extract ALX rat ↓TBARS, hydroperoxides; ↑SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST FBG, insulin, urea, Cr, uric acid 3 weeks [77]
Cinnamomumzeylanicum (xi-lan-rou-gui) Aqueous extract STZ rat ↑UCP-1, GLUT4 FBG, K/B ratio, insulin, HDL, TC, TG, Cr, histopathology 22 days [78]
Panaxnotoginseng (san-qi) Roots Notoginoside STZ rat ↓VEGF; ↑BMP-7 Cr, CCr, Ualb 4 weeks [79]
MesonaprocumbensHemsl (xiancao) Aqueous extract STZ rat ↓TSP-1 Body weight, FBG, histopathology 4 weeks [14]
Piper auritum (hu-jiao) Leaves Hexane extract STZ rat ↓AGEs, serum glycosylated protein, LDL glycation, glycation hemoglobin, renal glucose, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance; ↑SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH Kidney oxidative stress 4 weeks [44]
Smallanthussonchifolius (xue-lian) Leaves Aqueous extract STZ rat ↓TGF-β1, Smad2/3, collagen III, collagen IV, laminin-1, FN FBG, insulin, UAE, Cr, kidney hypertrophy, GBM thickening 4 weeks [80]
Milk thistle (nai-ji-cao) Silymarin STZ rat ↓Lipid peroxidation; ↑CAT, SOD, GPx FBG, serum urea, Cr, Ualb 4 weeks [81]
Curcumin STZ rat ↓eNOS, ET-1, TGF-β1, FN, NF-κB, p300 ECM 4 weeks [82]
Allium sativumL. (da-suan) STZ rat ↓TBARS; ↑GSH FBG, insulin, TG, TC, CCr, UAE, NAG 30 days [13]
PsidiumguajavaL. (fan-shi-liu) Leaves Total triterpenoids HFD + STZ rat ↓Hyperglycemia FBG, insulin, Cr, BUN, capillary, base-membrane incrassation, glomerular swelling, cysts and tubules edema 6 weeks [83]
Panaxnotoginseng (san-qi) Roots Notoginoside STZ rat ↓TGF-β1; ↑Smad7 FBG, renal index, CCr, UAlb 6 weeks [84]
Trigonellafoenumgraecum(xiang-cao) Seeds Aqueous extract HFD + STZ rat ↓MDA, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, renal cortex DNA; ↑SOD, CAT FBG, K/B ratio, Cr, BUN, UAlb, and CCr, GBM 6 weeks [85]
Schisandraechinensis (wu-wei-zi) Fruits Ethanol extract STZ mice ↓EMT, α-SMA, PAI-1, E-cadherin, Snail; ↑E-cadherin, α-SMA ACR, UAE, ECM deposition, podocyte loss and integrity of the slit diaphragm 7 weeks [21]
Curcumin STZ mice ↓COX-2, caspase-3, F- to G-actin cleavage; ↑p38-MAPK, HSP25 UAlb, ACR 7 weeks [24]
Panax ginseng (ren-shen) ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg(3) OLETF rats ↓TBARS, iNOS, CML FBG, CCr, UAE, urine volume 50 days [18]
PolygonummultiflorumThunb (he-shou-wu) Tetrahydroxystilbene STZ rat ↓TGF-β1, COX-2; ↑CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, SIRT1 TC, TG, BUN, Cr, UAlb, K/B ratio, MDA 8 weeks [25]
PaeonialactifloraPall. (shao-yao) Total glucosides STZ rat ↓Macrophages accumulation and proliferation; ↑p-JAK2, p-STAT3 UAlb 8 weeks [47]
Aceranthussagittatus (yin-yang-huo) Icariin STZ rat ↓MDA, Hyp, TGF-β1, collagen IV; ↑SOD FBG, Cr, BUN, histopathology 8 weeks [86]
Angelica acutiloba (dang-gui) Roots Aqueous ethanol extract STZ rat ↓NF-κB, TGF-β1, FN, AGEs, RAGE FBG, UAlb, UAE, CCr, ECM expansion 8 weeks [87]
Salvia miltiorrhiza (dan-shen) Aqueous extract STZ rat ↓TGF-β1, AGEs, RAGE, collagen IV and ED-1 FBG, UAlb, UAE 8 weeks [51]
Tripterygium wilfordii (lei-gong-teng) Multi-glycoside STZ rat ↓Mesangial cell proliferation, α-SMA, collagen 1 Body weight, UAlb, FBG, Cr, BUN, histopathology 8 weeks [88]
Hibiscus sabdariffa L (luo-shen-hua) Flowers Polyphenols STZ rat ↓TBARS; ↑CAT and GSH K/B ratio, proximal convoluted tubules, TG, TC, LDL 8 weeks [89]
Panaxquinquefolium (xi-yang-shen) Roots Ethanol extract STZ+ db/db mice ↓Oxidative stress, NF-κB p65, ECM, vasoactive factors Albuminuria and mesangial expansion 6 and 8 weeks [90]
Rheum officinale (da-huang) Rhein db/db mice ↓TGF-β1, FN UAE, ECM, TC, TG, LDL-C, Apo E 8 weeks [91]
Averrhoa carambola L (yang-tao) Roots 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione KKAy mice ↓Hyperglycemia, AGE, NF-κB, TGF-β1, CML; ↑SOD and GSH-Px activities Proteinuria, Cr, CCr, serum urea-N, ECM expansion 8 weeks [17]
Radix Astragali (huang-qi) Roots Aqueous extract STZ rat ↓MDA, IL-6, TNF-α, NF-κB, PKCα; ↑SOD and GSH-Px activities FBG, body weight, Cr 60 days [42]
Glycyrrhizauralensis (gan-cao) STZ rat ↓MDA; ↑GSH, SOD and CAT FBG, body weight, histopathology 60 days [11]
Acacia nilotica (jin-he-huan) Pods Aqueous methanol extract STZ rat ↓Hyperglycemia, LPO, ↑SOD and GSH activities FBG, serum urea, Cr, histopathology 60 days [28]
Portulacaoleracea (ma-chi-xian) Aqueous extract db/db mice ↓TGF-β1, AGEs, ICAM-1, NF-κB p65 FBG, Cr, water intake and urine volume 10 weeks [92]
Genistein STZ mice ↓ICAM-1, gp91 and TBARs; ↑ phospho-tyrosine and phospho-ERK/ERK ratio FBG, insulin, total protein, UAlb, urinary MCP-1 excretion 10 weeks [93]
Smilax glabraRoxb (tu-fu-ling) Rhizome Astilbin STZ rat ↓TGF-β1, CTGF Body weight, survival time, FBS 6 and 12 weeks [94]
PsidiumguajavaL. (fan-shi-liu) Fruits Aqueous + methanol extract STZ mice ↓AR activity, ROS, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, CML, MDA, AR and AGEs; ↑GSH, CAT, GSH-Px Body weight, insulin 12 weeks [95]
Caffeic acid, ellagic acid STZ mice ↓Sorbitol dehydrogenase, AR, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1 Body weight, urine volume, insulin, FBG, BUN, CCr, HbA1c, UAlb 12 weeks [96]
TrigonellafoenumgraecumL. (hu-lu-ba) Seeds Seed powder ALX rat ↓Glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and IL-6 in serum, MDA and IL-6 in kidney; ↑SOD and CAT activities, GSH Glomerular mesangial expansion 12 weeks [97]
Cornus officinalis (shan-zhu-yu) Fruits HFD + STZ rat ↓FBG, NAG, mALB; ↑insulin and Wilms tumor 1 in glomeruli FBG, mALB, UCr, BUN, NAG, histopathology 12 weeks [19]
Euonymus alatus (wei-mao) Leaves and branches Aqueous extract Uninephrectomy + STZ rat ↓TGF-β1 Blood lipids, UAlb, HbA1c, ECM expansion and glomerulus sclerosis 12 weeks [98]
Aster koraiensis (zi-yuan) Aerial part Ethanol extract STZ rat ↓AGEs accumulation, Bax; ↑Bcl-2 FBG, HbA1c, UAE, histopathology 13 weeks [99]
Rosa laevigataMichx. (jin-ying-zi) Fruits Aqueous extract STZ rat ↓MDA, ROS, NF-κB p65, MCP-1;↑SOD and antioxidant activities, IκBα Kidney oxidative stress 24 weeks [43]
AbelmoschusmanihotL. (huang-shu-kui) Flowers Total flavone glycosides, hyperoside STZ rat ↓Glomerular cell and podocytes apoptosis, caspase-3, caspase-8 ACR, UAlb 24 weeks [46]
  1. AGEs advanced glycation end products, ALX alloxan, AR aldose reductase, ACR urinary microalbumin to creatinine ratio, BMP bone morphogenetic protein, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CAT catalase, CCr creatinine clearance rate, CML N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl) lysine, CTGF connective tissue growth factor, COX cyclooxygenase, ECM extracellular matrix, ED-1 monocyte/macrophage, ET-1 endothelin-1, EMT epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, ERK extracellular signal-regulated kinases, FBG fasting blood glucose, FN fibronectin, GBM glomerular basement membrane, GLUT glucose transporter, GSH-Px glutathione peroxidase, GST glutathione-S-transferase, HFD high fat diet, HDL high density lipoprotein, HSP heat shock protein, Hyp hydroxyproline, ICAM intercellular adhesion molecule, JAK janus kinase, K/B kidney/body weight, LDL low density lipoprotein, LPO lipid peroxidation, iNOS inducible nitric oxide synthase, eNOS endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NAG N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, NF-κB nuclear factor κB, MAPK mitogen-activated protein kinase, mALB microalbuminuria, MCP monocyte chemotactic protein, MDA malondialdehyde, PAI plasminogen activator inhibitor, ROS reactive oxidative species, RAGE receptor of advanced glycation end-products, STAT3 signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, α-SMA α-smooth muscle actin, STZ Streptozotocin, SIRT1 Sirtuin 1, SOD superoxide dismutase, TARS thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TGF transforming growth factor, TG triglyceride, TC total cholesterol, TSP-1 thrombospondin-1, UAlb urinary microalbumin, UAE urinary albumin excretion, UCr urinary creatinine, UCP uncoupling protein, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor