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Table 1 Chinese medicines used in the management of experimental diabetic nephropathy

From: Chinese medicines in the treatment of experimental diabetic nephropathy

Species

Medicinal part

Extract/Compound

DN model

Nephro-protective Mechanisms

Pharmacodynamic indicators

Duration

Ref.

Eclipta alba (han-lian-cao)

Ethanol extract

STZ rat

↓α-glucosidase and aldose reductase activities

FBG, HbA1C, urea, uric acid, UCr, insulin

3 weeks

[76]

GymnemamontanumHook (shi-geng-teng)

Ethanol extract

ALX rat

↓TBARS, hydroperoxides; ↑SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST

FBG, insulin, urea, Cr, uric acid

3 weeks

[77]

Cinnamomumzeylanicum (xi-lan-rou-gui)

Aqueous extract

STZ rat

↑UCP-1, GLUT4

FBG, K/B ratio, insulin, HDL, TC, TG, Cr, histopathology

22 days

[78]

Panaxnotoginseng (san-qi)

Roots

Notoginoside

STZ rat

↓VEGF; ↑BMP-7

Cr, CCr, Ualb

4 weeks

[79]

MesonaprocumbensHemsl (xiancao)

Aqueous extract

STZ rat

↓TSP-1

Body weight, FBG, histopathology

4 weeks

[14]

Piper auritum (hu-jiao)

Leaves

Hexane extract

STZ rat

↓AGEs, serum glycosylated protein, LDL glycation, glycation hemoglobin, renal glucose, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance; ↑SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH

Kidney oxidative stress

4 weeks

[44]

Smallanthussonchifolius (xue-lian)

Leaves

Aqueous extract

STZ rat

↓TGF-β1, Smad2/3, collagen III, collagen IV, laminin-1, FN

FBG, insulin, UAE, Cr, kidney hypertrophy, GBM thickening

4 weeks

[80]

Milk thistle (nai-ji-cao)

Silymarin

STZ rat

↓Lipid peroxidation; ↑CAT, SOD, GPx

FBG, serum urea, Cr, Ualb

4 weeks

[81]

Curcumin

STZ rat

↓eNOS, ET-1, TGF-β1, FN, NF-κB, p300

ECM

4 weeks

[82]

Allium sativumL. (da-suan)

STZ rat

↓TBARS; ↑GSH

FBG, insulin, TG, TC, CCr, UAE, NAG

30 days

[13]

PsidiumguajavaL. (fan-shi-liu)

Leaves

Total triterpenoids

HFD + STZ rat

↓Hyperglycemia

FBG, insulin, Cr, BUN, capillary, base-membrane incrassation, glomerular swelling, cysts and tubules edema

6 weeks

[83]

Panaxnotoginseng (san-qi)

Roots

Notoginoside

STZ rat

↓TGF-β1; ↑Smad7

FBG, renal index, CCr, UAlb

6 weeks

[84]

Trigonellafoenumgraecum(xiang-cao)

Seeds

Aqueous extract

HFD + STZ rat

↓MDA, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, renal cortex DNA; ↑SOD, CAT

FBG, K/B ratio, Cr, BUN, UAlb, and CCr, GBM

6 weeks

[85]

Schisandraechinensis (wu-wei-zi)

Fruits

Ethanol extract

STZ mice

↓EMT, α-SMA, PAI-1, E-cadherin, Snail; ↑E-cadherin, α-SMA

ACR, UAE, ECM deposition, podocyte loss and integrity of the slit diaphragm

7 weeks

[21]

Curcumin

STZ mice

↓COX-2, caspase-3, F- to G-actin cleavage; ↑p38-MAPK, HSP25

UAlb, ACR

7 weeks

[24]

Panax ginseng (ren-shen)

ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg(3)

OLETF rats

↓TBARS, iNOS, CML

FBG, CCr, UAE, urine volume

50 days

[18]

PolygonummultiflorumThunb (he-shou-wu)

Tetrahydroxystilbene

STZ rat

↓TGF-β1, COX-2; ↑CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, SIRT1

TC, TG, BUN, Cr, UAlb, K/B ratio, MDA

8 weeks

[25]

PaeonialactifloraPall. (shao-yao)

Total glucosides

STZ rat

↓Macrophages accumulation and proliferation; ↑p-JAK2, p-STAT3

UAlb

8 weeks

[47]

Aceranthussagittatus (yin-yang-huo)

Icariin

STZ rat

↓MDA, Hyp, TGF-β1, collagen IV; ↑SOD

FBG, Cr, BUN, histopathology

8 weeks

[86]

Angelica acutiloba (dang-gui)

Roots

Aqueous ethanol extract

STZ rat

↓NF-κB, TGF-β1, FN, AGEs, RAGE

FBG, UAlb, UAE, CCr, ECM expansion

8 weeks

[87]

Salvia miltiorrhiza (dan-shen)

Aqueous extract

STZ rat

↓TGF-β1, AGEs, RAGE, collagen IV and ED-1

FBG, UAlb, UAE

8 weeks

[51]

Tripterygium wilfordii (lei-gong-teng)

Multi-glycoside

STZ rat

↓Mesangial cell proliferation, α-SMA, collagen 1

Body weight, UAlb, FBG, Cr, BUN, histopathology

8 weeks

[88]

Hibiscus sabdariffa L (luo-shen-hua)

Flowers

Polyphenols

STZ rat

↓TBARS; ↑CAT and GSH

K/B ratio, proximal convoluted tubules, TG, TC, LDL

8 weeks

[89]

Panaxquinquefolium (xi-yang-shen)

Roots

Ethanol extract

STZ+ db/db mice

↓Oxidative stress, NF-κB p65, ECM, vasoactive factors

Albuminuria and mesangial expansion

6 and 8 weeks

[90]

Rheum officinale (da-huang)

Rhein

db/db mice

↓TGF-β1, FN

UAE, ECM, TC, TG, LDL-C, Apo E

8 weeks

[91]

Averrhoa carambola L (yang-tao)

Roots

2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione

KKAy mice

↓Hyperglycemia, AGE, NF-κB, TGF-β1, CML; ↑SOD and GSH-Px activities

Proteinuria, Cr, CCr, serum urea-N, ECM expansion

8 weeks

[17]

Radix Astragali (huang-qi)

Roots

Aqueous extract

STZ rat

↓MDA, IL-6, TNF-α, NF-κB, PKCα; ↑SOD and GSH-Px activities

FBG, body weight, Cr

60 days

[42]

Glycyrrhizauralensis (gan-cao)

STZ rat

↓MDA; ↑GSH, SOD and CAT

FBG, body weight, histopathology

60 days

[11]

Acacia nilotica (jin-he-huan)

Pods

Aqueous methanol extract

STZ rat

↓Hyperglycemia, LPO, ↑SOD and GSH activities

FBG, serum urea, Cr, histopathology

60 days

[28]

Portulacaoleracea (ma-chi-xian)

Aqueous extract

db/db mice

↓TGF-β1, AGEs, ICAM-1, NF-κB p65

FBG, Cr, water intake and urine volume

10 weeks

[92]

Genistein

STZ mice

↓ICAM-1, gp91 and TBARs; ↑ phospho-tyrosine and phospho-ERK/ERK ratio

FBG, insulin, total protein, UAlb, urinary MCP-1 excretion

10 weeks

[93]

Smilax glabraRoxb (tu-fu-ling)

Rhizome

Astilbin

STZ rat

↓TGF-β1, CTGF

Body weight, survival time, FBS

6 and 12 weeks

[94]

PsidiumguajavaL. (fan-shi-liu)

Fruits

Aqueous + methanol extract

STZ mice

↓AR activity, ROS, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, CML, MDA, AR and AGEs; ↑GSH, CAT, GSH-Px

Body weight, insulin

12 weeks

[95]

Caffeic acid, ellagic acid

STZ mice

↓Sorbitol dehydrogenase, AR, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1

Body weight, urine volume, insulin, FBG, BUN, CCr, HbA1c, UAlb

12 weeks

[96]

TrigonellafoenumgraecumL. (hu-lu-ba)

Seeds

Seed powder

ALX rat

↓Glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and IL-6 in serum, MDA and IL-6 in kidney; ↑SOD and CAT activities, GSH

Glomerular mesangial expansion

12 weeks

[97]

Cornus officinalis (shan-zhu-yu)

Fruits

HFD + STZ rat

↓FBG, NAG, mALB; ↑insulin and Wilms tumor 1 in glomeruli

FBG, mALB, UCr, BUN, NAG, histopathology

12 weeks

[19]

Euonymus alatus (wei-mao)

Leaves and branches

Aqueous extract

Uninephrectomy + STZ rat

↓TGF-β1

Blood lipids, UAlb, HbA1c, ECM expansion and glomerulus sclerosis

12 weeks

[98]

Aster koraiensis (zi-yuan)

Aerial part

Ethanol extract

STZ rat

↓AGEs accumulation, Bax; ↑Bcl-2

FBG, HbA1c, UAE, histopathology

13 weeks

[99]

Rosa laevigataMichx. (jin-ying-zi)

Fruits

Aqueous extract

STZ rat

↓MDA, ROS, NF-κB p65, MCP-1;↑SOD and antioxidant activities, IκBα

Kidney oxidative stress

24 weeks

[43]

AbelmoschusmanihotL. (huang-shu-kui)

Flowers

Total flavone glycosides, hyperoside

STZ rat

↓Glomerular cell and podocytes apoptosis, caspase-3, caspase-8

ACR, UAlb

24 weeks

[46]

  1. AGEs advanced glycation end products, ALX alloxan, AR aldose reductase, ACR urinary microalbumin to creatinine ratio, BMP bone morphogenetic protein, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CAT catalase, CCr creatinine clearance rate, CML N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl) lysine, CTGF connective tissue growth factor, COX cyclooxygenase, ECM extracellular matrix, ED-1 monocyte/macrophage, ET-1 endothelin-1, EMT epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, ERK extracellular signal-regulated kinases, FBG fasting blood glucose, FN fibronectin, GBM glomerular basement membrane, GLUT glucose transporter, GSH-Px glutathione peroxidase, GST glutathione-S-transferase, HFD high fat diet, HDL high density lipoprotein, HSP heat shock protein, Hyp hydroxyproline, ICAM intercellular adhesion molecule, JAK janus kinase, K/B kidney/body weight, LDL low density lipoprotein, LPO lipid peroxidation, iNOS inducible nitric oxide synthase, eNOS endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NAG N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, NF-κB nuclear factor κB, MAPK mitogen-activated protein kinase, mALB microalbuminuria, MCP monocyte chemotactic protein, MDA malondialdehyde, PAI plasminogen activator inhibitor, ROS reactive oxidative species, RAGE receptor of advanced glycation end-products, STAT3 signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, α-SMA α-smooth muscle actin, STZ Streptozotocin, SIRT1 Sirtuin 1, SOD superoxide dismutase, TARS thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TGF transforming growth factor, TG triglyceride, TC total cholesterol, TSP-1 thrombospondin-1, UAlb urinary microalbumin, UAE urinary albumin excretion, UCr urinary creatinine, UCP uncoupling protein, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor