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Table 2 Summary of the macroscopic and microscopic features of ATR, AGR, ACR and AAR

From: Authentication of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (Shi Chang Pu) and its adulterants by morphological distinction, chemical composition and ITS sequencing

 Shape Flattish-cylindrical Cylindrical Fusiform
 Length (cm) 3–15 1–4 5–20 1–4
 Diameter (mm) 3–10 2–7 10–15 3–5
 Fracture Fibrous, numerous dotted vascular bundles and brown oil spots visible Fibrous, numerous dotted vascular bundles visible Granular protuberances, starchy
 Odor Aromatic; taste bitter and slightly pungent Strong aromatic and taste pungent Slight; taste slightly sour and numbness
Transverse section
 1. Epidermis Sub-square brown cells Flat square cells
 2. Cortex 3. Fiber bundles, 4. Secretory cells and 5. Leaf-trace vascular bundle are scattered 3. Fiber bundles arrange in ring, 8. Stone cells, suborbicular, scattered
Small intercellular spaces Large intercellular spaces
 7. Stele vascular bundle Amphivasal or collateral, densely lined up near the 6. Endodermis N/A
 9. Pith N/A Large
 1. Crystal fibers Fiber bundles surrounded by cells containing prisms of calcium oxalate, forming crystal fibers 6. Fibers, not crystal fiber
 2. Starch granules Ellipsoid, spheroidal or long-ovoid, black and cruciate-shaped under the polarized microscope
 3. Secretory cells Abundant, sub-rounded or elongated-rounded N/A
 4. Vessels Mainly reticulate
 5. Epidermal cells of leaf sheath Greyish-green or pale yellowish-brown, rectangular N/A
 7. Stone cells N/A Abundant
 8. Parenchymatous cells Less Abundant
  1. The number is referred to the notations in Fig. 2 (transverse section) and Fig. 3 (powder section)