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Table 3 Structures and in vitro anti-cancer activity of identified GpM components

From: Anti-cancer effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (Jiaogulan)

Compd R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 Anti-cancer activitya Reference
1 H H CH3 H 47.12 (HL-60) [122]
2 H H CH3 H 45.50 (HL-60) [122]
3 H H CH3 H HL-60, Colon 205, Du145, GC-7901, BEL-7402 [85, 86]
4 H H CH3 H HL-60, Colon 205, Du145, GC-7901, BEL-7402 [85, 86]
5 H H CHO H HL-60, Colon 205, Du145, GC-7901, BEL-7402 [85, 86]
6 H H CHO H HL-60, Colon 205, Du145, GC-7901, BEL-7402 [85, 86]
7 CH3 H CHO H HL-60, Colon 205, Du145, GC-7901, BEL-7402 [85, 86]
8 CH3 H CHO H HL-60, Colon 205, Du145, GC-7901, BEL-7402 [85, 86]
9 CH3 H CH3 H HL-60, Colon 205, Du145, GC-7901, BEL-7402 [85, 86]
10 CH3 H CH3 OH 67.66 ± 3.36 (HL-60), 18.45 ± 0.93 (MCF-7), 34.95 ± 0.93(HT-29), 20.97 ± 1.49 (A549), 27.68 ± 1.58 (SK-OV-3) [53]
11 CH3 H CH3 =O >109.2 (HL-60), 42.81 ± 3.60 (MCF-7), 22.06 ± 2.18 (HT-29), 31.45 ± 2.62 (A549), 30.25 ± 1.53 (SK-OV-3) [53]
12 CH3 H CH3 =O >107.6 (HL-60), 23.03 ± 1.40 (MCF-7), 46.30 ± 1.08 (HT-29), 21.09 ± 1.18 (A549), 35.62 ± 0.97 (SK-OV-3) [53]
13 CH3 H CH3 =O 76.63 ± 2.98 (HL-60), 23.62 ± 1.02 (MCF-7), 39.34 ± 1.02 (HT-29), 19.90 ± 1.40 (A549), 19.90 ± 1.49 (SK-OV-3) [53]
14 H H CH3 H 7.44 (HL-60), 27.80 (Colon 205), 24.12 (Du145) [127]
15 H H H CH3 H 3.90 (MDA-MB-435) [128]
16 H H H CH3 H 0.05 ± 0.01 (A549), 0.25 ± 0.07 (U87) [129]
17 H OH H CH3 OH 12.54 ± 0.53 (A549) [130]
18 H OH CH3 OH 34.94 ± 4.23 (A549) [130]
19 H H H CH3 H 40 ± 0.7 (HepG2) [44]
20 H H H CH3 OH 38 ± 0.5 (HepG2) [44]
21 H H H CH3 H 41.89 (HCT116), 20.94 (HT-29), 32.61 (MCF-7) [55]
22 H H H CH3 H 41.40 (HCT116), 19.00 (HT-29), 28.82 (MCF-7) [55]
23 H H CHO H 32.00 ± 1.24 (HepG2) [56]
24 H H CH3 H 21.38 ± 1.06 (HepG2) [56]
25 H OH CH3 OH 74.3 ± 1.9 (A549) [59]
26 18.41 (HT-29), 4.46 (MCF-7), 9.39 ± 0.9 (DI145), 6.93 ± 0.5 (22RV-1) [54, 55]
27 20.38 (HT-29), 13.51 (MCF-7) [55]
28 16.14 (HT-29), 8.84 (MCF-7) [55]
Flavonoid fraction 33.3 (PC-3) [21]
Carotenoid fraction 1.6 (Hep3B) [84]
Chlorophyll fraction 57.5 (Hep3B) [84]
Nonpolar fraction 38.02 ± 2.98 (MDA-MB-453), 31.62 ± 1.76 (HCT116), 35.48 ± 3.81 (LNCaP), 35.48 ± 6.45 (MCF7) [22]
Gypenosides 47.6 (Hep3B), 39.3 (PC-3), 30.6 (A549) HL-60, MCF-7, HT-29, Colon 205, Du145, MDA-MB-435, U87, A549, SK-OV-3, HepG2, SGC-7901, BEL-7402, Huh-7, HA22T, SW620, Eca-109, SAS, L1210, WEHI-3, SW-480, KB/VCR, MCF-7/ADR [19, 21, 36, 44, 8587, 8991, 105109, 111, 112, 114, 115, 119, 121, 131, 132]
Polysaccharide 65.4 (B16), HT-29, B16, Hela, SW-1116, HepG2 [44, 87, 88, 119]
Ethanolic extract C6, HT-59 [113, 133]
  1. aThe anti-cancer activities, IC50 (μg/ml), of components of GpM are expressed as mean ± SD following cell line names in bracket. Only the mean value is listed if there is no SD value available and only cancer cell line name is listed if no IC50 data is available. The unit of compound 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 21, 22, 26, 27 and 28 are transformed based on molecular weight. This table also presents 30 cancer cell lines whose proliferation could be inhibited by GpM, which indicates that GpM exerts broad spectrum anti-cancer activities