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Table 3 Specific frequency distribution of preference for foods with hot, neutral and cold characteristics (N = 404, %)

From: Relationship between Chinese medicine dietary patterns and the incidence of breast cancer in Chinese women in Hong Kong: a retrospective cross-sectional survey

Food nature Food Breast cancer Very preferred Preferred Average Not preferred Not very preferred Statistical significance
Hot Spicy food No 14 (6.9) 50 (24.8) 82 (40.6) 43 (21.3) 13 (6.4) 0.655
Yes 19 (9.4) 55 (27.2) 68 (33.7) 46 (22.8) 14 (6.9)
Roast meat No 5 (2.5) 59 (29.2) 113 (55.9) 22 (10.9) 3 (1.5) 0.237
Yes 12 (5.9) 68 (33.7) 104 (51.5) 17 (8.4) 1 (0.5)
Beef No 16 (8.0) 58 (28.9) 83 (41.3) 29 (14.4) 15 (7.5) 0.534
Yes 24 (12.1) 48 (23.6) 87 (43.2) 31 (15.1) 12 (6.0)
Mutton No 8 (4.0) 32 (16.0) 83 (41.0) 50 (24.5) 29 (14.5) 0.777
Yes 11 (5.6) 33 (16.3) 72 (35.7) 51 (25.0) 35 (17.3)
Chicken No 36 (17.8) 102 (50.5) 55 (27.2) 8 (4.0) 1 (0.5) 0.138
Yes 56 (27.8) 82 (40.4) 54 (26.8) 8 (4.0) 2 (1.0)
Salmon/tuna No 30 (14.9) 87 (43.3) 57 (28.4) 19 (9.5) 7 (3.5) 0.687
Yes 37 (18.2) 76 (37.4) 65 (32.3) 18 (9.1) 6 (3.0)
Shrimp No 13 (6.5) 53 (26.4) 84 (41.3) 38 (18.9) 14 (7.0) <0.001 *
Yes 44 (21.9) 60 (29.9) 73 (6.3) 19 (9.5) 5 (2.5)
Shellfish No 9 (4.5) 37 (18.3) 97 (48.0) 48 (23.8) 11 (5.4) <0.001 *
Yes 31 (15.2) 56 (27.8) 73 (36.4) 39 (19.2) 3 (1.5)
Dark Chinese tea No 30 (14.9) 76 (37.6) 73 (36.1) 15 (7.4) 8 (4.0) 0.071
Yes 31 (15.2) 73 (36.0) 67 (33.0) 30 (14.7) 2 (1.0)
Coffee/tea with milk No 38 (18.8) 52 (25.7) 52 (25.7) 44 (21.8) 16 (7.9) 0.678
Yes 43 (21.5) 54 (26.5) 56 (27.5) 32 (16.0) 17 (8.5)
Soft drinks No 3 (1.5) 10 (5.0) 65 (32.2) 92 (45.5) 31 (15.3) 0.001 *
Yes 10 (5.0) 30 (14.9) 72 (35.8) 65 (32.3) 24 (11.9)
Milk No 10 (5.0) 49 (24.4) 91 (44.8) 35 (17.4) 17 (8.5) 0.014 *
Yes 25 (12.2) 37 (18.3) 90 (44.7) 43 (21.3) 7 (3.6)
Alcohol No 0 (0.0) 4 (2.0) 21 (10.4) 58 (28.7) 117 (57.9) 0.257
Yes 3 (1.5) 2 (1.0) 17 (8.5) 66 (32.5) 114 (56.5)
Beer No 2 (1.0) 23 (11.4) 64 (31.7) 48 (23.8) 64 (31.7) 0.075
Yes 6 (3.0) 15 (7.5) 47 (23.1) 65 (32.2) 69 (34.2)
Popcorn/fries No 3 (1.5) 34 (16.8) 79 (39.1) 57 (28.2) 29 (14.4) 0.035 *
Yes 15 (7.6) 32 (15.7) 86 (42.4) 46 (22.7) 23 (11.6)
Chocolate No 25 (12.4) 61 (30.3) 82 (40.8) 26 (12.9) 7 (3.5) 0.842
Yes 25 (12.4) 64 (31.8) 72 (35.8) 31 (15.4) 9 (4.5)
Candies No 3 (1.5) 21 (10.4) 93 (46.0) 67 (33.2) 18 (8.9) 0.250
Yes 7 (3.5) 33 (16.4) 80 (39.8) 65 (32.3) 16 (8.0)
Deep boiled soup No 59 (29.2) 98 (48.5) 38 (18.8) 5 (2.5) 2 (1.0) 0.759
Yes 56 (27.9) 104 (51.7) 38 (18.9) 2 (1.0) 1 (0.5)
Western soup No 13 (6.5) 73 (36.3) 81 (40.3) 22 (10.9) 12 (6.0) 0.059
Yes 18 (9.0) 51 (25.4) 86 (42.8) 37 (18.4) 9 (4.5)
Neutral Fruits and vegetables No 44 (21.6) 131 (64.8) 25 (12.6) 2 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 0.452
Yes 41 (20.2) 121 (60.1) 37 (18.1) 3 (1.6) 0 (0.0)
Pork No 15 (7.5) 95 (46.8) 83 (41.3) 5 (2.5) 4 (2.0) 0.690
Yes 18 (9.0) 94 (46.5) 86 (42.5) 2 (1.0) 2 (1.0)
Pork with fat No 4 (2.0) 17 (8.4) 70 (34.7) 66 (32.7) 45 (22.3) 0.121
Yes 4 (2.0) 32 (16.0) 72 (35.5) 63 (31.0) 31 (15.5)
Geese/duck No 5 (2.5) 45 (22.3) 101 (50.0) 36 (17.8) 15 (7.4) 0.209
Yes 13 (6.5) 55 (27.0) 92 (45.5) 31 (15.5) 11 (5.5)
Fresh water fish No 19 (9.4) 79 (39.1) 80 (39.6) 16 (7.9) 7 (3.5) 0.140
Yes 10 (5.0) 63 (31.3) 100 (49.3) 20 (10.0) 9 (4.5)
Nuts No 39 (19.5) 84 (41.5) 64 (31.5) 10 (5.0) 5 (2.5) 0.020*
Yes 26 (12.6) 65 (32.2) 88 (43.7) 18 (9.0) 5 (2.5)
Boiling soup No 37 (18.3) 98 (48.5) 57 (28.2) 6 (3.0) 4 (2.0) 0.233
Yes 31 (15.5) 90 (44.5) 61 (30.0) 16 (8.0) 4 (2.0)
Cold Fruits and vegetables No 38 (19.0) 117 (58.0) 45 (22.5) 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 0.323
Yes 30 (14.9) 11 (56.9) 53 (26.1) 4 (2.1) 0 (0.0)
Sea fish No 35 (17.3) 97 (48.0) 58 (28.7) 10 (5.0) 2 (1.0) 0.963
Yes 31 (15.5) 102 (50.5) 57 (28.0) 9 (4.5) 3 (1.5)
Squid No 27 (13.6) 59 (29.1) 85 (42.2) 25 (12.6) 5 (2.5) 0.219
Yes 19 (9.5) 45 (22.1) 96 (47.7) 36 (17.6) 6 (3.0)
Products made from bean No 53 (26.4) 103 (50.7) 39 (19.4) 5 (2.5) 2 (1.0) 0.019 *
Yes 39 (19.1) 87 (43.2) 67 (33.2) 8 (4.0) 1 (0.5)
Light Chinese tea No 28 (13.9) 82 (40.6) 64 (31.7) 23 (11.4) 5 (2.5) 0.148
Yes 33 (16.1) 64 (31.7) 78 (38.7) 26 (13.1) 1 (0.5)
Herbal tea No 4 (2.0) 40 (19.8) 111 (55.0) 39 (19.3) 8 (4.0) 0.582
Yes 5 (2.5) 36 (17.7) 101 (50.0) 47 (23.2) 13 (6.6)
  1. The P value was <0.05, indicating a statistically significant between-group difference. The results showed a possible association between consumption of hot foods and a higher risk of breast cancer
  2. * P values were calculated by Chi square tests