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Table 2 Anticancer effects and mechanisms of HCD herb-containing formulas

From: Anticancer activities and mechanisms of heat-clearing and detoxicating traditional Chinese herbal medicine

HCD formulas Components Cancer types (cell lines) Cellular effects Molecular mechanisms References
Yanshu Injection Sophorae flavescentis Radix, Smilacis glabrae Rhizoma Hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), bladder cancer (T24) Inhibiting proliferation, adhesion, invasion, migration and metastasis inducing apoptosis and autophagy, modulating immune response ↓TGF-β1, ↓TGFBR1 [73,74,75,76]
Huanglian Jiedu Tang Coptidis rhizome, Phellodendri chinensis Cortex, Scutellariae Radix, and Gardeniae Fructus Hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2, PLC/PRF/5), myeloma (U266, NOP-2, AMO1, ILKM2) Inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and cycle arrest ↑p-Cdc2, ↑p-Cdc25C, ↓Cdc2, ↓Cdc25C, ↓Cyclin A, ↓Cyclin B1, ↑Bak, ↓Bcl-2, ↓Bcl-XL, ↑IKB-α, ↓NF-κB, ↓IL-6, ↓XIAP, ↑caspase-3, ↑caspase-9 [78,79,80,81]
Jiedu Xiaozheng Yin Hedyotis diffusa Willd, Cremastrae pseudobulbus, Pleiones pseudobulbus, Prunellae Spica and Sophorae flavescentis Radix Hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2, PLC/PRF/5, Huh7) Inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis, cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and loss of plasma membrane asymmetry, decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential ↑Cyclin D, ↑Cyclin E, ↓C-myc, ↓Cyclin D1, ↓PCNA, ↓Bmi1, ↑p16, ↑caspase-3, ↑caspase-9, ↑Bax/Bcl-2 [19, 82,83,84]
PHY906 Scutellariae Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Jujubae Fructus, Paeoniae Radix Alba Hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) Inducing apoptosis ↑FasL, ↑FasR, ↑hMCP1, ↑AMPKα-T172-P, ↑ULK1-S555-P, ↑ERK1/2-P [86,87,88,89]
Feiji Recipe Astragali Radix, Glehniae Radix, Ophiopogonis Radix, Asparagi Radix, Poria, Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, Selaginella doederleinii Hieron, Coicis semen, Salivae Chinensis Herba, Epimedii Folium, Trichosanthis Pericarpium, Paris polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara, Ranunculus ternatus, Pinelliae Rhizoma, Cremastrae Pseudobulbus, Arisaematis Rhizoma Preparatum, Houttuyniae Herba, and Prunellae Spica Lung cancer (LLC) Inhibiting proliferation, intervening immune escape ↓CD4+CD2+Tr, ↓VEGF, ↓Scd44V6, ↓TGR-β1, ↓IL-10 [102, 103]
YiQi ChuTan Recipe Panacis Quinquefolii Radix, Ophiopogonis Radix, Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex, Cremastrae Pseudobulbus, Stephaniae Tetrandrae Radix, Pinelliae Rhizoma, Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, and Hominis Placenta Lung cancer (A549, LLC) Inhibiting proliferation and metastasis, reversing EMT ↓GRP78, ↓smad2/3, ↓SRC/MAPK, ↑Caspase-4, ↑DNA-PK, ↓Hspd1, ↓PH, ↓PDI, ↓EG433182, ↓HSPA 5 precursor, ↓HSPA 9, ↓PP1, ↓PRDX-1, ↓PRDX-6 [104,105,106]
Jianpi Yangzheng Xiaozheng Recipe Codonopsis Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Coicis semen, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Aucklandiae Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Smilacis Chinae Rhizoma, Salivae Chinensis Herba, and Glycyrrhizae Radix Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle Gastric cancer (MGC-803) Inducing apoptosis and autophagy ↑Bax, ↓Bcl-2, ↓cyclin D1, ↓cyclin D2, ↓cyclin D3, ↑Fas, ↓procaspase-3, ↓procaspase-8, ↓procaspase-9, ↑cleaved-PARP, ↑Beclin-1, ↑LC3 II [107]
Fuzheng Qingjie Recipe Astragali Radix, Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, Ganoderma, Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Prunellae Spica and Hedyotis diffusa Willd Hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) Inducing apoptosis ↑caspase-9, ↑caspase-3, ↑P38 MAPK, ↑Bax, ↓Bcl-2 [108]
Baihe Recipe Solanum lyratum Thunb., Hedyotis diffusa Willd, Agrimoniae Herba, Codonopsis Radix, and Poria, Gastric cancer (BGC-823) Inhibiting proliferation and metastasis ↓VEGF, ↓p53 [109]
Weikangfu Granule Curcumae Radix, Astragali Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, and Poria Sarcoma (S180) Inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, modulating immune response ↑p53, ↑Bax, ↓Bcl-2 [110, 111]