Skip to main content

Advertisement

TableĀ 1 A brief summary of various extraction methods for natural products

From: Techniques for extraction and isolation of natural products: a comprehensive review

Method Solvent Temperature Pressure Time Volume of organic solvent consumed Polarity of natural products extracted
Maceration Water, aqueous and non-aqueous solvents Room temperature Atmospheric Long Large Dependent on extracting solvent
Percolation Water, aqueous and non-aqueous solvents Room temperature, occasionally under heat Atmospheric Long Large Dependent on extracting solvent
Decoction Water Under heat Atmospheric Moderate None Polar compounds
Reflux extraction Aqueous and non-aqueous solvents Under heat Atmospheric Moderate Moderate Dependent on extracting solvent
Soxhlet extraction Organic solvents Under heat Atmospheric Long Moderate Dependent on extracting solvent
Pressurized liquid extraction Water, aqueous and non-aqueous solvents Under heat High Short Small Dependent on extracting solvent
Supercritical fluid extraction Supercritical fluid (usually S-CO2), sometimes with modifier Near room temperature High Short None or small Nonpolar to moderate polar compounds
Ultrasound assisted extraction Water, aqueous and non-aqueous solvents Room temperature, or under heat Atmospheric Short Moderate Dependent on extracting solvent
Microwave assisted extraction Water, aqueous and non-aqueous solvents Room temperature Atmospheric Short None or moderate Dependent on extracting solvent
Pulsed electric field extraction Water, aqueous and non-aqueous solvents Room temperature, or under heat Atmospheric Short Moderate Dependent on extracting solvent
Enzyme assisted extraction Water, aqueous and non-aqueous solvents Room temperature, or heated after enzyme treatment Atmospheric Moderate Moderate Dependent on extracting solvent
Hydro distillation and steam distillation Water Under heat Atmospheric Long None Essential oil (usually non-polar)