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Table 2 Major phytochemicals of Triphala constituents

From: Triphala: current applications and new perspectives on the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders

Phytochemical Structural formula Properties Refs.
Gallic acid Inhibits neuronal death; Exerts anti-cancer properties against leukemia, colon and certain prostate cancers, and lung cancer cells; Prevents cellular mutations; Does not affect healthy cells [1, 2, 12,13,14]
Chebulic acid Free radical scavenging activity in vitro; ferric-reducing antioxidant activity; significantly reduces cell cytotoxicity Promising intervention agent against diabetic vascular complication; [2, 4,5,6, 15,16,17,18]
Chebulinic acid Anti-inflammatory activity; Natural inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor-a mediated angiogenesis [17, 19]
Ellagic acid Neuroprotective effect; [17, 20, 21]
Tannic acid Astringent property due to the presence of polyphenolic groups; Used as a treatment for many toxic substances, such as strychnine, mushroom, and ptomaine poisonings in the late 19th and early 20th centuries [11, 12, 22,23,24,25]
Epicatechin Acts as an antioxidant in high concentration in vitro; Prevents cisplatin-induced apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial dysfunction [26,27,28,29]
Syringic acid Antibacterial and antioxidant effect [11, 12, 23,24,25, 30]
Ascorbic acid Reducing agent and scavenger of radicals (sink of radicals); excellent source of electrons, donates electrons to free radicals such as hydroxyl and superoxide and quenches their reactivity [30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38]