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Table 5 Conservation status of plants

From: Traditional medicinal plants used for respiratory disorders in Pakistan: a review of the ethno-medicinal and pharmacological evidence

Scientific name

Family

Medicinal use

Conservation status

Population trend

Refs.

Abies pindrow Royle

Amaranthaceae

Cough, asthma

Least concern

Stable

[199]

Acacia modesta Wall

Acanthaceae

Cough, asthma

Endangerd

Persistent

[38]

Aconitum chasmanthum

Ranunculaceae

Cough, and asthma

Critically endangered

Decreasing

[200]

Aconitum violaceum

Ranunculaceae

Asthma, cough

Vulnerable

Decreasing

[200]

Alstonia scholaris

Fabaceae

Asthma

Least concern

[201]

Arisaema flavum

Berberidaceae

Cough, cold

Rare

Increased

[38]

Arisaema jacquemontii

Asclepiadaceae

Asthma

Rare

Increased

[38]

Artemisia scoparia

Asteraceae

Cough chest problems

Rare

Increased

[38]

Avena sativa

Poaceae

Asthma

Infrequent

Decreasing

[202]

Berberis lyceum

Adiantaceae

Cough

Vulnerable

Increased

[82]

Bergenia ciliate

Apiaceae

Coughs and colds, asthma

Engangerd

Increased

[82]

Bistorta amplexicaulis

Polygonaceae

Flue.

Endangerd

Persistent

[82]

Bunium persicum

Apiaceae

Cold, cough

Rare

Increased

[82]

Celtis australis L.

Ulmaceae

Cough

Engangerd

Persistent

[38]

Cichorium intybus L.

Asteraceae

Asthma and breathing problems

Rare

Increased

[38]

Cupressus sempervirens

Asteraceae

Flu and cold

Least concern

Unknown

[203]

Daucus carota

Moraceae

Asthma, bronchitis

Infrequent

Decreasing

[204]

Desmostachya bipinnata

Nyctaginaceae

Asthma

Least concern

Unknown

[205]

Ephedra gerardiana

Ephedraceae

Asthma/breathing problem

Vulnerable

Increased

[82]

Ephedra intermedia

Rosaceae

Asthma and tuberculosis.

Least concern

Stable

[206]

Ficus carica L.

Moraceae

Cough

Least concern

[207]

Ficus elastic

Moraceae

Cough, asthma

Rare

Increased

[38]

Ficus palmata

Myrtaceae

Expectorant

Rare

Increase

[38]

Inula grantioides

Asteraceae

Asthma

Rare

Increased

[38]

Juglans regia

Euphorbiaceae

Asthma

Near threatened

Decreasing

[207]

Juniperus excelsa

Cupressaceae

Chest infection

Least concern

Stable

[203]

Lemna minor

Convolvulaceae

Cold

Least concern

Unknown

[208]

Mangifera indica

Capparaceae

Asthma, cough

Infrequent

[201]

Mentha longifolia

Labiateae

Cough

Rare

Increased

[82]

Mimosa pudica L.

Lamiaceae

Asthma

Least concern

Stable

[209]

Morus alba L.

Solanaceae

Cough

Vulnerable

Persistent

[38]

Morus nigra L.

Poaceae

Cough

Vulnerable

Persistent

[38]

Olea ferruginea

Cough, cold, flue

Endangerd

Persistent

[38]

Opuntia dillenii

Lythraceae

Asthma, whooping cough

Least concern

Stable

[210]

Opuntia monacantha

Caesalpinaceae

Bronchitis and asthma

Least concern

Stable

[211]

Phyla nodiflora

Verbenaceae

Cold

Least concern

Stable

[212]

Pinus roxburghii

Solanaceae

Coughs, cold

Least concern

Stable

[38]

Pistacia integerrima

Rosaceae

Cough, asthma

Vulnerable

Increased

[82]

Plantago lanceolata

Plantaginaceae

Cough and chest diseases

Rare

Increased

[82]

Punica granatum

Punicaceae

Cough

Least concern

[207]

Pyrus communis L.

Rosaceae

Cough

Vulnerable

Persistent

[38]

Rhynchosia minima

Mimosaceae

Asthma

Least concern

Stable

[207]

Rubus fruiticosus

Violaceae

Whooping cough

Vulnerable

Persistent

[38]

Salvia nubicola

Labiateae

Cough, asthma

Vulnerable

Persistent

[38]

Thymus linearis

Labiateae

Cough, asthma

Rare

Increased

[82]

Thymus serpyllum L.

Lamiaceae

Whooping cough, asthma

Vulnerable

Persistent

[38]

Verbascum thapsus L.

Scrophulariaceae

Cough

Rare

Persistent

[38]

Viola serpens

Lamiaceae

Lung trouble

Vulnerable

Persistent

[38]

Viola biflora L.

Pteridaceae

Cold and flu

Rare

Increased

[82]

Viola canescens

Violaceae

Cough

Rare

Increased

[82]

Vitis vinifera L.

Rhamnaceae

Bronchitis

Least concern

[213]