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Table 5 Conservation status of plants

From: Traditional medicinal plants used for respiratory disorders in Pakistan: a review of the ethno-medicinal and pharmacological evidence

Scientific name Family Medicinal use Conservation status Population trend Refs.
Abies pindrow Royle Amaranthaceae Cough, asthma Least concern Stable [199]
Acacia modesta Wall Acanthaceae Cough, asthma Endangerd Persistent [38]
Aconitum chasmanthum Ranunculaceae Cough, and asthma Critically endangered Decreasing [200]
Aconitum violaceum Ranunculaceae Asthma, cough Vulnerable Decreasing [200]
Alstonia scholaris Fabaceae Asthma Least concern [201]
Arisaema flavum Berberidaceae Cough, cold Rare Increased [38]
Arisaema jacquemontii Asclepiadaceae Asthma Rare Increased [38]
Artemisia scoparia Asteraceae Cough chest problems Rare Increased [38]
Avena sativa Poaceae Asthma Infrequent Decreasing [202]
Berberis lyceum Adiantaceae Cough Vulnerable Increased [82]
Bergenia ciliate Apiaceae Coughs and colds, asthma Engangerd Increased [82]
Bistorta amplexicaulis Polygonaceae Flue. Endangerd Persistent [82]
Bunium persicum Apiaceae Cold, cough Rare Increased [82]
Celtis australis L. Ulmaceae Cough Engangerd Persistent [38]
Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae Asthma and breathing problems Rare Increased [38]
Cupressus sempervirens Asteraceae Flu and cold Least concern Unknown [203]
Daucus carota Moraceae Asthma, bronchitis Infrequent Decreasing [204]
Desmostachya bipinnata Nyctaginaceae Asthma Least concern Unknown [205]
Ephedra gerardiana Ephedraceae Asthma/breathing problem Vulnerable Increased [82]
Ephedra intermedia Rosaceae Asthma and tuberculosis. Least concern Stable [206]
Ficus carica L. Moraceae Cough Least concern [207]
Ficus elastic Moraceae Cough, asthma Rare Increased [38]
Ficus palmata Myrtaceae Expectorant Rare Increase [38]
Inula grantioides Asteraceae Asthma Rare Increased [38]
Juglans regia Euphorbiaceae Asthma Near threatened Decreasing [207]
Juniperus excelsa Cupressaceae Chest infection Least concern Stable [203]
Lemna minor Convolvulaceae Cold Least concern Unknown [208]
Mangifera indica Capparaceae Asthma, cough Infrequent [201]
Mentha longifolia Labiateae Cough Rare Increased [82]
Mimosa pudica L. Lamiaceae Asthma Least concern Stable [209]
Morus alba L. Solanaceae Cough Vulnerable Persistent [38]
Morus nigra L. Poaceae Cough Vulnerable Persistent [38]
Olea ferruginea Cough, cold, flue Endangerd Persistent [38]
Opuntia dillenii Lythraceae Asthma, whooping cough Least concern Stable [210]
Opuntia monacantha Caesalpinaceae Bronchitis and asthma Least concern Stable [211]
Phyla nodiflora Verbenaceae Cold Least concern Stable [212]
Pinus roxburghii Solanaceae Coughs, cold Least concern Stable [38]
Pistacia integerrima Rosaceae Cough, asthma Vulnerable Increased [82]
Plantago lanceolata Plantaginaceae Cough and chest diseases Rare Increased [82]
Punica granatum Punicaceae Cough Least concern [207]
Pyrus communis L. Rosaceae Cough Vulnerable Persistent [38]
Rhynchosia minima Mimosaceae Asthma Least concern Stable [207]
Rubus fruiticosus Violaceae Whooping cough Vulnerable Persistent [38]
Salvia nubicola Labiateae Cough, asthma Vulnerable Persistent [38]
Thymus linearis Labiateae Cough, asthma Rare Increased [82]
Thymus serpyllum L. Lamiaceae Whooping cough, asthma Vulnerable Persistent [38]
Verbascum thapsus L. Scrophulariaceae Cough Rare Persistent [38]
Viola serpens Lamiaceae Lung trouble Vulnerable Persistent [38]
Viola biflora L. Pteridaceae Cold and flu Rare Increased [82]
Viola canescens Violaceae Cough Rare Increased [82]
Vitis vinifera L. Rhamnaceae Bronchitis Least concern [213]