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Table 1 List of plants used traditionally against skin conditions

From: Indigenous medicinal plants of Pakistan used to treat skin diseases: a review

Sr. no Botanical name Common name Family Habit Part used Ethnoprep Folk claim References Pharmacological validation Phyto-constituent
1 Calotropis procera (Aiton) R. Br. Dasi ak, Milk weed, Akk, Spalmaka, wallow-wort, Sodom apple, Dead Sea apple Asclepiadaceae S St, bk, lf, sd, rt, fr, wp (1) Decoction of stem and leaves is taken
(2) Latex is mixed with castor oil and applied
(3) Paste with raw sugar is applied over the dog bitten wounds
(4) Flowers are put in oil & applied on wounds
(5) Crushed leaves
(6) The leaves are warmed and tied over the wounds and used as poultice
(7) Roots are powdered, mixed with “desi ghee” and pasted on points of leprosy
Leprosy, wound healing, abscess, ringworm, dog bitten wounds, eczema, pustules and pimples, skin eruptions, syphilis, boils, ulcer, burn, dermatitis, scabies, infection and other skin diseases [3, 40, 58,59,60,61,62,63,64] Anti-hyperbilirubinemic and wound healing activity of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera leaves in Wistar rats [89]
Calotropis procera extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in human skin melanoma (SK-MEL-2) cells [90]
Wound-healing and potential anti-keloidal properties of the latex of Calotropis procera (Aiton) Asclepiadaceae in rabbits [91]
Wound healing in diabetes mellitus: traditional treatment modalities [92]
Healing potential of Calotropis procera on dermal wounds in Guinea pigs [93]
Procerursenyl acetate, proceranol, N-dotriacont-6-ene, glyceryl mono-oleolyl-2-phosphate, methyl myrisate, methyl behenate and glyceryl-1,2-dicapriate-3-phosphate [115]
2 Berberis lyceum Royle Sumblu, komal, Kowdach, Berberry, Churku, Ishkeen, Ishkin (Urdu), Ishkein (Shina), Sumbal Berberidaceae S Rt, st, br, lf, fr (1) The paste of root and bark is externally applied on wounds
(2) Crushed bark is soaked in water and the extract is taken in morning to treat scabies, boils and pimples
(3) Decoction
(4) Dried root mixed with egg and fried in cow’s ghee is used
(5) Dried powdered root is spread over external wounds
(6) For external wounds peel off an epidermis of root and boil the inner cortex
(7) Bark powder paste mixed with mustard oil is used
Gonorrhea, wound healing, ulcers, Scabies, Boils, Pimples [18, 65,66,67] Wound healing activity of root extracts of Berberis lyceum royle in rats [94] Berberine, ß-sitosterol, 4,4-dimethylhexadeca-3-ol, butyl-3-hydroxypropyl phthalate, 3-(4′-(6-methyl butyl) phenyl)p ropan-1-ol, 4-methyl-7-hydroxycoumarin [116]
3 Dodonaea vescosa (L.) Jacq. Ghwara-sky, Sanatha, Anartirk/Hanartirk Sapindaceae S Wp, Lf, sd, Bk, wd, rt, fl (1) Paste of dried powdered leaves and water is applied
(2) Fresh leaves are crushed to the extent to become sticky and then tied on the effected part of the body for wounds healing
(3) Poultice
(4) Leaves are grinded, mixed in water and bath is taken with this water
(5) Decoction
(6) Dry leaves are tied on wounds and used for softening of wound
Swelling, Germicidal, pimples, Burn and wound healing, cracked skin, rashes, itching and pustules, allergy [40, 58, 60, 67,68,69,70] Antifungal activity of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq extract on pathogenic fungi isolated from superficial skin infection [95]
Toxicity studies on dermal application of plant extract of Dodonaea viscosa used in Ethiopian traditional medicine [96]
Antifungal activity of the plant Dodonaea viscosa var. Angustifolia on Candida albicans from HIV-infected patients [97]
Sakuranetin, leucocynindns, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-3′-(3hydroxymethylbutanol) 3,6-dimethoxyflavone, 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone, 5,4′-dihydroxy-3,6,7-trimethoxy flavone, 3′-(γ,γ-dimethyalllyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,4′-trimethoxyflavone, 3,5,7,4′-Tetrahydroxyl-3,4′-dimethoxyflavone, 5,4′-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone, 5,7-dihydroxy-6, 4′-dimethoxyflavone, 3,5-dihydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone, trimethoxy flavone, 5 hydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone, 6 Hydroxy-3,6,7 trimethoxyflavone, 5,7,4′ Trihydroxy-3-methoxyflavone [117]
4 Achyranthes aspera L. Apang, Puth Kanda, Prickly flower, Jishkay Amaranthaceae H lf, st, sd, wp (1) Ash of leaves and stem
(2) Juice
(3) Decoction
(4) Paste of leaves
leprosy, Itching, Skin eruptions and irritation, abscess and boils, ulcer and other Skin diseases [3, 36, 64, 68, 71,72,73] Cancer chemopreventive activity of Achyranthes aspera leaves on Epstein-Barr virus activation and two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis [98]
Antibacterial activities of selected medicinal plants in traditional treatment of human wounds in Ethiopia [99]
In vivo wound-healing efficacy and antioxidant activity of Achyranthes aspera in experimental burns [100]
Evaluation of in vivo wound healing activity of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera L. [101]
Anti-herpes virus activities of Achyranthes aspera: an indian ethnomedicine, and its triterpene acid [102]
Pharmacological evaluation and chemical standardization of an ayurvedic formulation for wound healing activity [103]
α-l-Rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-(β-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1 → 3)-oleanolic acid, α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-(β-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1 → 3)-oleanolic acid-28-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-(β-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1 → 3)-oleanolic acid-28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-d-glucopyranoside, n-hexacos-14-enoic acid, strigmasta-5, 22-dien-3-β-ol, trans-13-docasenoic acid, n-hexacosanyl, n-decaniate, n-hexacos-17-enoic acid and n-hexacos-11-enoic acid, 36, 37-dihydroxyhenpentacontan-4-one and Triacontanol, β-d-glucopyranosyl3β-[O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-O-β-d-glucopyranuronosyloxy]machaerinate, β-d-glucopyranosyl3β-[O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-α-d-glucopyranuronosyloxy]machaerinate, β-d-glucopyranosyl-3β[O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-[1 → 3)-O-β-d-glucopyranuronosyloxy]oleanolate, β-d-glucopyranosyl3-β-[O-β-d-galactopyranosyl (1 → 2)-O-β-d-glucopyranuronosyloxy] oleanolate, β-d-glucopyranosyl 3β-[O-β-d-glucopyranuronosyloxy]
Oleanolate [118]
5 Nerium oleander L. Kaner, Gndeer, Ganaera, Gandeera Apocynaceae S Rt, Lf, Bk, Br (1) Oil extracted from the root and bark
(2) Paste
(3) Leaves with honey used as a poultice
(4) Decoction
Scabies, ulcers, leprosy and scaly skin, Gangrine, maggots infesting wounds [74,75,76,77,78] Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and skin regenerative properties of an Aloe vera-based extract of Nerium oleander leaves [104] Nériine, digitoxigénine, Amorphane, 1.8-cineole, α-pinene, calarene, Limonene, βPhellandrene, Terpinene-4-ol, sabinene, Isoledene, 3-Carene, Humulene, β-Pinene and Cymen-8-ol [119]
6 Riccinus communis L. Arand, Raned, Hurnoli Euphorbiaceae S Wp, Sd, lf, bk, rt (1) Grinded leaves
(2) Oil obtained from the seeds
(3) Paste of leaves is slightly warmed over fire and applied
Freckles, scabies, wounds and sores healing, boils, acne, leprosy, ringworm, swelling, warts removal and other skin diseases [68] Some Nigerian plants of de rmatologic importance [105]
Antimicrobial activity of Palestinian medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria [106]
In vitro assessment of cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) Leaf Extracts [107]
Natural pharmacopoeia used in traditional Toba medicine for the treatment of parasitosis and skin disorders (Central Chaco, Argentina) [108]
Effect of Solanum nigrum and ricinus communis extracts on histamine and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the chicken skin [109]
Ricinine, N-demethylricinine, glycosides kaempferol-3-O kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin
Xylopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, kaempferol
O-β-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-β rutinoside, 1, 8-cineole, camphor and α-pinine (β-caryophyllene, ricinoleic, isoricinoleic, stearic and dihydroxystearic acids, ricinine, ester form of palmitic, stearic, arachidic, hexadecenoic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, ricinoleic (89.4%) and dihydroxy stearic acids, ergost—en-3-ol, stigmasterol, Y-sitosterol, fucosterol; and probucol [120]
7 Carthamus tinctorious L. Pome, Pong, Tukhmigartum, Safflower Asteraceae H Fl, sd, lf (1) Powder
(2) Decoction
(3) Paste
(4) Juice
Chicken pox, measles and eruptive skin problems [17, 79] Inhibitory effects of active compounds isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seeds for melanogenesis [110]
Kinetic study on the tyrosinase and melanin formation inhibitory activities of carthamus yellow isolated from Carthamus tinctorius L. [111]
Inhibitory effect of hydroxysafflor yellow a on mouse skin photoaging induced by ultraviolet irradiation [112]
Enzyl-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, syringarenol, lirioresinol-A, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol [121]
8 Solanum nigrum L. Mako, Black Nightshade Solanaceae H Wp, Ber, lf, Ft, Lf, st (1) The juice of the ripen berries is applied on the skin
(2) Poultice
(3) Crushed leaves
(4) Fruits are crushed and applied externally
(5) Decoction
Cosmetics, dried skin, pimples, freckles, as sun block, corrosive ulcer and suppurating Syphilitic ulcer, Pustules, ring worms, wounds healing, eczema, leukoderma [18, 78, 80,81,82,83] Effect of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis extracts on histamine and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the chicken skin [109] (+)-pinoresinol (I), (+)-syringaresinol (II), (+)-medioresinol (III), scopoletin (IV), tetracosanoic acid (V) and beta-sitosterol [122]
9 Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth Siris, Shareen Fabaceae T Lf, sd, bk, fl, st, wd, tr (1) Dried leaves are smoked
(2) Paste of flower
(3) Extract
Wound healing, leucoderma, itching, Inflammations, boils, eruption [78, 84] Wound-healing potential of the root extract of Albizzia lebbeck [113] Budmunchiamines L1–L3, Quercetin, kaempferol, 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl (1 → 6)-β-glucopyranosyl(1 → 6)-β-galactopyranosides and Albiziasaponins A, B and C [123]
10 Plantago lanceolata L. Bar-e-Thang, Boieko-ligini, Isphaghol, Ghwa jabai Plantaginaceae H Lf, ft, sd, rt (1) Fresh leaves are mashed and put on wounds Wound and burn healing, Skin sores, inflamed surfaces, bruises [3, 4, 66, 85,86,87,88] Plantago lanceolata L. Water extract induces transition of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and increases tensile strength of healing skin wounds [114] catalpol, aucubin, and acteoside [124]
  1. H, herb; S, stem; T, tree; Bk, bark; Lf, leaf; sd, seed; rt, root; Wp, whole plant; ber, berries; fl, flower; br, branch