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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of participants

From: Blood and urinary metabolomic evidence validating traditional Chinese medicine diagnostic classification of major depressive disorder

Variables Healthy controls
(n = 28)
LQS subtypea (n = 30) HSD subtypea (n = 20) p valueb,c
Female, n (%)b 17 (60.7) 25 (83.3) 10 (50.0) 0.035
Age (y)c 34.1 ± 8.1 38.1 ± 13.4 41.5 ± 13.7 0.107
Educational level, n (%)b     0.331
 Primary 2 (7.1) 6 (20.0) 5 (25.0)  
 Middle 5 (17.9) 4 (13.3) 5 (25.0)  
 Highd 21 (75.0) 20 (66.7) 10 (50.0)  
Marital status, n (%)b     0.734
 Married 23 (82.1) 26 (86.7) 18 (90.0)  
 Single/divorced/widowed 5 (17.9) 4 (13.3) 2 (10.0)  
Income level, n (%)b,e     0.775
 Low 4 (14.3) 7 (23.3) 3 (15.0)  
 Middle 17 (60.7) 18 (60.0) 14 (70.0)  
 High 7 (25.0) 5 (16.7) 3 (15.0)  
Family history with severe mental diseases, n (%)b,f 3 (10.7) 4 (13.3) 0 0.250
Comorbid conditions, n (%)b,g   3 (10) 4 (20) 0.560
Medication history, n (%)b,h     0.803
 SSRIs/SNRIsa   25 (83.3) 18 (90.0)  
 Antipsychotics   5 (16.7) 2 (10.0)  
Previous depressive episode, n (%)b     0.684
 Single   18 (60.0) 10 (50.0)  
 Multiple   12 (40.0) 10 (50.0)  
Duration of the illness (months)c,i   39.5 ± 60.9 33.6 ± 47.8 0.716
HAMD-24 scorea,c   32.5 ± 8.5 30.1 ± 6.5 0.286
  1. a LQS Liver Qi Stagnation, HSD Heart and Spleen Deficiency, SSRIs selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SNRIs serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, HAMD-24 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression
  2. b Categorical data was analyzed using Chi square (χ2) test
  3. c Continuous data are expressed mean ± SD and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the three groups and Student t-test for LQS and HSD subtypes
  4. d High levels included high school, college, and postgraduate education
  5. e Compared to average local household incomes
  6. f Severe mental diseases mainly included schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and severe depression
  7. g Most comorbid conditions were cardiovascular and diabetic diseases
  8. h SSRIs mainly included paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, and fluoxetine. SNRIs mainly include venlafaxine and duloxetine. Antipsychotics mainly include quetiapine, olanzapine, and risperidone. All medications were taken earlier than 3 months ago at screening
  9. i Duration of the illness was calculated from the first episode of depression