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Table 3 Ginseng-like herbs worldwide with similar functions as those of plant-originated adaptogens

From: A preliminary review of studies on adaptogens: comparison of their bioactivity in TCM with that of ginseng-like herbs used worldwide

Scientific name Common name Family Common function Main functional ingredient
Panax ginseng C.A.Mey Asian ginseng Araliaceae Used for strengthening, nourishing, adjusting blood pressure and restoring heart function, neurasthenia and physical weakness [42] Ginsenoside [84]
Pannax quinquefolius L. American ginseng Araliaceae Used to treat qi and yin deficiency, endogenous heat, kechuan, sputum, asthenic fever, dysphoria, thirst, and dry mouth and throat [42] Ginsenoside, etc. [84]
Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H.Chen Notoginseng Araliaceae Used for dispersing blood stasis and haemostasis and relieving swelling and pain [85] Notoginseng saponins, Dencichine, etc. [84]
Panax japonicus Japanese ginseng Araliaceae Used for dispersing blood stasis and haemostasis, relieving swelling and pain, eliminating phlegm and arresting coughing and for tonifying deficiency and strengthening [86] Chikusetsusaponin, pseudo ginsenoside F11, Panax japonicus polysaccharide, etc. [86]
Panax pseudoginseng Wall. var. major (Burkill) H. L. Li Himalayan ginseng Araliaceae Used to treat qi and yin deficiency, dysphoria, thirst, asthenia coughing, injuries from falling down, joint pain, haemoptysis, haematemesis and bleeding wounds [86] Majoroside, etc. [86]
Eleutherococcus senticosus Siberian ginseng Araliaceae Used for regulating body disorders, improving the circulatory system, to treat fatigue, for promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis, invigorating the stomach and for diuresis and so on [13, 87] Eleutheroside, acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharide, etc. [13, 87]
Withania somnifera Indian ginseng Solanaceae Used for strengthening; nourishing;its anti-ageing, anti-stress, antioxidation, anti-tumor, anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, anti-depression properties; immune regulation; improving cognitive function and so on [19] Withanolides and other steroid esters and withanine and other alkaloids [88]
Pfaffia paniculata Brazilian ginseng Amaranthaceae Often used as a tonic, to relieve fatigue effectively, improve sexual function, and lower blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid levels [89] Pfaffic acid and its glycoside, for example, pfaffosides A–F, and nortiperpene and its glycoside, etc. [86]
Eurycoma longifolia Malaysian ginseng Simaroubaceae Used for its anticancer, anti-malaria properties, improving male sexual dysfunction, sterilizing, lowering blood pressure and treating diabetes [54] Diterpenes with quassinoid skeletons and alkaloids such as canthin-6-one, mainly, biphenyl lignin and squalene derivatives [54]
Lepidium meyerii Peruvian ginseng Brassicaceae Used as s natural nutrient, for enhancing fertility effectively and for its anti-fatigue properties [90] Marca amide, marca alkaloids, etc. [91]
Talinum paniculatum Folk ginseng Talinaceae Used as a medicinal tonic and for strengthening, nourishing, improving qi, replenishing blood, aiding digestion, promoting fluid production, quenching thirst and treating cough and phlegm containing blood [92] Terpenoids, coumarins, volatile oils, and polysaccharides, etc. [93]