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Table 2 The applications of metabolomics in nephrotoxicity evaluation of TCM

From: Application of metabolomics in toxicity evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines

TCM Toxicity Animals Samples Metabolomic technology Data analysis Metabolic pathways References
Aristolochic acid Nephrotoxicity Rats Urine GC–MS PCA, PLS-DA Energy metabolism, gut microbiota, purine metabolism [60]
Rats Urine LC–MS OPLS-DA Tricarboxylic acid cycle, gut microflora metabolism, amino acid metabolism, purine metabolism, bile acid biosynthesis [61]
Strychni Semen Nephrotoxicity Rats Serum, urine 1H NMR OPLS-DA Glycolysis, lipid and amino acid metabolism [64]
Arisaematis Rhizoma Nephrotoxicity Rats Serum, urine 1H NMR PLS-DA Glycolysis–gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid metabolism, gut microflora metabolism [66]
Pharbitidis Semen Nephrotoxicity Rats Serum, kidney LC–MS PCA Phospholipids metabolism, amino acid metabolism, sphingolipids biosynthesis and metabolism [68]
Rats Urine LC–MS PCA Amino acid metabolism, citric acid cycle, bile acid metabolism [69]
Alismatis Rhizoma Chronic nephrotoxicity Rats Urine LC–MS PCA Amino acid metabolism, Purine metabolism, bile acid metabolism, sphingolipids metabolism [71]