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Table 1 Differential proteomics in exploring the action mechanisms of TCMs

From: Differential proteomics for studying action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicines

Diseases Drugs Potential key targets or signaling pathways Proteomics methods Ref.
Cancers
 Osteosarcomas Bufalin Heat shock 27 kDa protein 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF–MS [6]
 T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia 2-β-d-Glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne Mitochondrial function (Parkinson disease protein 7, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 2 and peroxiredoxin 3) and cell death (BH3 interacting domain death agonist and Lamin-B1 protein) 2-DE, MALDI-MS/MS and LC–ESI–MS/MS [7]
 Thyroid cancer Honokiol Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, tubulin alpha-1A chain, alpha-enolase, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF–MS [8]
 Hepatocarcinoma Oridonin Heat shock 70 kDa protein 1, serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein, translationally-controlled tumor protein, stress-induced phosphoprotein 1, inorganic pyrophosphatase, trifunctional purine, chromobox protein homolog 1, glycyl-tRNA synthetase, poly(rC)-binding protein 1 2-DE and MALDI-TOF–MS/MS [9]
 Multiple myeloma Oridonin Stathmin, dihydrofolate reductase, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1β 2-DE and MALDI-TOF–MS/MS [10]
 Gastric cancer β-Elemene Bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1, Bcl-rambo, p21-activated protein kinase-interacting protein 1, S100 calcium binding protein A10, etc. iTRAQ and LC–MS/MS [11]
 Glioblastoma β-Asarone Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (H) isoform CRA b, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleo-protein A2/B1 isoform CRA a, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1, cathepsin D 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF–MS/MS [12]
 Lung cancer Triptolide Ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes, spliceosome, mRNA surveillance pathway iTRAQ and Nano LC–MS/MS [13]
β-Elemene Peroxiredoxin-1 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF–MS [14]
Cardiocerebrovascular diseases
 Cardiovascular disorders (antiplatelet) Notoginsengnosides Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2, thrombospondin 1, thioredoxin, Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase, Parkinson disease protein 7, peroxiredoxin 3, thioredoxin-like protein 2, ribonuclease inhibitor, myosin regulatory light chain 9, tubulin alpha 6, laminin receptor 1, potassium channel subfamily V member 2 2-DE and MALDI-TOF–MS/MS [15]
Salvianolic acids LIM domain protein CLP-36, copine I, myosin regulatory light chain 9, coronin-1B, heat shock 70 kDa protein 2, heat shock 70 kDa protein 8, heat shock 70 kDa protein 9, peroxiredoxin 3, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, fibrinogen gamma polypeptide, cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain 2C, aminopeptidase P 1 2-DE and MALDI-TOF–MS/MS [16]
Salvianolic acid B Integrin α2β1 2-DE and MALDI-TOF–MS/MS [17]
Olive oil γ-Actin, Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1, annexin A5, integrin αIIb, protein disulphide isomerase-related protein 5, fibrinogen gamma chain precursor, syntaxin-7, serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2-DE and LC–ESI–MS [18]
Rhizoma Corydalis P2Y purinoceptor 12, Gαi signalling pathways 2-DE and MALDI-TOF–MS/MS [19]
Dehydrocorydaline, canadine P2Y purinoceptor 1, 12 (dehydrocorydaline); G protein-coupled receptor protease-activated receptor 1 (canadine) 2-DE and MALDI-TOF–MS/MS [20]
 Cerebral IR injury Tetrandrine 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, Parkinson disease protein 7 and hypoxia up-regulated protein 1 2-D DIGE, MALDI-TOF/TOF–MS [21]
Bu-Yang Huan-Wu Decoction Albumin, fibrinogen alpha chain, transferrin, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha chain, glycogen synthase kinase 3, microtubule-associated protein tau, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G (i), GDP dissociation inhibitor and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase iTRAQ and LC–MS/MS [22]
Tao-Hong Si-Wu Decoction Superoxide dismutase [Cu–Zn], sulfiredoxin, glutathione S-transferase alpha-2, glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1, heme oxygenase 1 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF–MS [23]
 Cardiac IR injury Salvianolic acids, notoginsengnosides Protein disulfide-isomerase, myosin light polypeptide 3, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (SAs); apolipoprotein A-I, ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein, 60 kDa heat shock protein, prohibitin (NG) 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF–MS [24]
Liver diseases
 Liver injury Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang Zinc finger protein 407, haptoglobin, macroglobulin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, transthyretin, vitamin D-binding protein, prothrombin 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF–MS [25]
 Liver fibrosis Fu-Zheng Hua-Yu Recipe Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1, vimentin isoform CRA b, gamma-actin, vimentin, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B, Aldo–keto reductase family 1 member D1, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase isoform, Heat shock protein 90 2-DE and MALDI-TOF–MS [26]
Fu-Zheng Hua-Yu Recipe Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2A3, cytochrome P450 2B1 and cytochrome P450 3A18 in retinol metabolism pathway iTRAQ and LC–MS/MS [27]
Bupleurum marginatum Wall.ex DC Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase, adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1, thioredoxin 1, acyl-CoA oxidase 2, glycogenin 1, alpha serine/threonine kinase, acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1, carbonyl reductase family member 4 iTRAQ and LC–MS/MS [28]
Wound healing
 Skin trauma Radix Angelicae Sinensis Triosephosphate isomerase, microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member1, nucleoside diphosphate kinase B, glutathione S-transferase P, translationally-controlled tumor protein, peroxiredoxin, Parkinson disease protein 7, annexin A2 2-DE and LC–MS/MS [29]
Radix Lithospermi Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member1, chloride intracellular channel protein 1, nucleoside diphosphate kinase A, phosphorylated signal protein P38, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 2-DE and LC–MS/MS [30]
Agrimonia pilosa, Nelumbo nucifera, Boswellia carteri, pollen typhae (ANBP) β-2-Glycoprotein 1, histidinerich glycoprotein, myosin family, keratin, extracellular matrix proteins iTRAQ, HPLC and LC–MS/MS [31]
Radix Astragali, Radix Rehmanniae Annexin A1, annexin A2, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF–MS [32]
Diabetes
 T2DM Yi-Qi-Yang-Yin-Hua-Tan-Qu-Yu Recipe Cell division control protein 42 homolog, Ras homolog gene family member A iTRAQ, 2D LC–MS/MS [33]
Xiaoke Pill Angiotensinogen, alpha-1-antitrypsin, paraoxonase and fibulin iTRAQ, MRM, 2D-LC, MALDI TOF/TOF–MS [34]
Kaempferitrin Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4, low-density lipoprotein receptor, C-type mannose receptor 2, adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1, Mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 Dimethyl peptide labeling, LC–MS/MS [35]
TCM deficiency syndrome
 Kidney-yin deficiency syndrome Liu-Wei Di-Huang Granule Retinol binding protein 4, transthyretin, apolipoprotein, Complement C4-B 2-DE and MALDI-TOF–MS [36]
 Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome Jin-Kui Shen-qi Pill Wnt signaling pathway, adherens junction, neurotrophin signaling pathway, B cell receptor signaling pathway, chemokine signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway iTRAQ-LC–MS/MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS [37]
 Yin-deficiency-heat syndrome Zhi-Bai Di-Huang Granule Zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, complement C1q subcomponent, mannose-binding protein C, l-selectin, plasminogen and kininogen-1 iTRAQ and 2D LC–MS/MS [38]
Other diseases
 Hyperlipidemia Yin-Chen Wu-Ling Powder Apolipoprotein E, serum albumin, transthyretin and vitamin D-binding protein; T-kininogen, complement C3, C4, C4b-binding protein alpha chain, Igλ-2 chainC, mannose-binding protein C, hemopexin and fibrinogen-like protein 1 2-DE and MALDI-TOF–MS [39]
 Obesity Taeumjowi-tang Fatty acid synthetase, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/acetyl CoA carboxylase pathway 2-DE and MALDI-TOF–MS [40]
 Depression Shen-Zhi-Ling tablet Von Willebrand factor, protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor, alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein C-III label-free and LC–MS/MS [41]
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Bu-Fei Yi-Shen formula Oxidative stress and focal adhesion pathway iTRAQ and Nano LC–MS/MS [42]
 Fever Bai-Hu-Tang F-actin, coronin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, major histocompatibility complex class I iTRAQ and LC–MS [43]
 Aging Red ginseng Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase 2-DE and MALDI-TOF–MS [44]
  1. 2-DE, two-dimensional electrophoresis; MALDI-TOF–MS, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry; iTRAQ, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification; LC–ESI–MS, liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry; 2D-DIGE, two-dimension difference gel electrophoresis; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS, ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time of fight high definition mass spectrometry; IR, ischemic–reperfusion