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Table 2 Ecological factor ranges of C. sativus L

From: A new GIS model for ecologically suitable distributions of medicinal plants

Biologically meaningful variables Biological range Biological mean Biological Std Dev
BIO1 = annual mean temperature/°C 2.8–26.3 13.5 4.5
BIO2 = mean diurnal range (mean of monthly)/°C 5.6–16.7 11.3 2.8
BIO3 = isothermality (BIO2/BIO7) (*100)/°C 2.6–4.2 3.6 0.4
BIO4 = temperature seasonality (standard deviation * 100) 405.5–973.9 688.1 129.8
BIO5 = max temperature of warmest month/°C 15.9–42.7 30.2 6.0
BIO6 = min temperature of coldest month/°C − 13.7–9.5 -6.0 4.5
BIO7 = temperature annual range (BIO5–BIO6)/°C 16.6–42.8 30.1 6.0
BIO8 = mean temperature of wettest quarter/°C − 2.9–21.4 11.5 5.4
BIO9 = mean temperature of driest quarter/°C 0.8–34.3 19.5 8.8
BIO10 = mean temperature of warmest quarter/°C 11.1–35.3 22.4 5.0
BIO11 = mean temperature of coldest quarter/°C 2.8–26.3 13.5 4.5
BIO12 = annual precipitation/mm 58–1400 502.8 299.7
BIO13 = precipitation of wettest month/mm 13–226 67.2 32.6
BIO14 = precipitation of driest month/mm 0–93 19.2 22.8
BIO15 = precipitation seasonality (coefficient of variation) 8–124 47.5 28.5
BIO16 = precipitation of wettest quarter/mm 35–621 180.0 93.6
BIO17 = precipitation of driest quarter/mm 0–306 71.6 73.4
BIO18 = precipitation of warmest quarter/mm 0–321 86.5 86.1
BIO19 = precipitation of coldest quarter/mm 27–621 144.2 91.0
BIO20 = solar radiation/kJ m−2 day−1 (by calculation) 8628.6–19,770.5 15,603.9 2610.0
BIO21 = water vapor pressure/kPa (by calculation) 0.4–1.5 1.0 0.2