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Table 1 Clinical manifestations and diagnostic criteria of TCM-based subtypes of MDD

From: Brain connectomic associations with traditional Chinese medicine diagnostic classification of major depressive disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study

  Liver qi stagnation (LQS) Heart and spleen deficiency (HSD)
Mood symptom characters Depressed mood with frustration, nervousness, and/or irritability Depressed mood with excessive pensiveness, suspicion, and/or timorousness
Somatic symptoms A. Frequently sighing (0 = absent, 1 = slight, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = severe)
B. Chest distension and/or hypochondriac pain (0 = absent, 1 = slight, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = severe)
C. Abdominal bloating (0 = absent, 1 = slight, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = severe)
D. Decreased appetite (0 = absent, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe)
E. Loose stool (0 = absent, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe)
F. Breast tenderness (0 = absent, 1 = slight, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = severe)
G. Irregular menstruation (0 = normal, 1 = seldom, 2 = sometimes, 3 = frequent)a
H. Menstrual pain (0 = absent, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe)a
A. Palpitation (0 = normal, 1 = seldom, 2 = sometimes, 3 = most times, 4 = all times)
B. Forgetfulness (0 = absent, 1 = slight, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = severe)
C. Insomnia or dream-disturbed sleep (0 = absent, 1 = sometimes, 3 = most times)
D. Decreased appetite (0 = absent, 1 = slight, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = severe)
E. Abdominal fullness (0 = absent, 1 = sometimes, 3 = most times)
F. Loose stool or dysfunctional diarrhea (0 = absent, 1 = slight, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = severe)
G. Pale and sallow complexion (0 = normal, 1 = slightly apparent, 2 = mildly apparent; 3 = moderately apparent, 4 = very apparent)
H. Tiredness (0 = absent, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe)
Tongue and pulse I. Red tongue body with thin and white coating (0 = normal, 1 = mildly apparent, 2 = moderately apparent, 3 = very apparent)
J. Wiry pulse (0 = normal, 1 = slightly apparent, 2 = mildly apparent; 3 = moderately apparent, 4 = very apparent)
I. Pale and tender or watery tongue body with white coating (0 = normal, 1 = slightly apparent, 2 = mildly apparent; 3 = moderately apparent, 4 = very apparent)
J. Weak and thin pulse (0 = normal, 1 = slightly apparent, 2 = mildly apparent; 3 = moderately apparent, 4 = very apparent)
Diagnostic criteriab [1] Must have A, B, I, and J; at least one of D and E; and at least one of F, G, and H for women
[2] Total score of physical symptoms and tongue and pulse signs is not less than 10
[1] Must have at least two of A, B and C; at least two of D, E and F; at least one of G and H; I and J
[2] Total score of physical symptoms and tongue and pulse signs is not less than 10
  1. The diagnostic criteria are modified based on Refs. [6,7,8]
  2. aF, G, and H items are only applied for women
  3. bThose who fail to meet either LQS or HSD subtype are classified as other subtypes