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Table 2 Chemical analysis of P. heterophylla

From: Chemistry, pharmacology and analysis of Pseudostellaria heterophylla: a mini-review

Analytes Methods References
Pseudostellarin A, C, D, and G HPLC–ESI–MSn [25]
Pseudostellarin A, B, C, D, E, G HPLC-APCI (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization)-MS [67]
Pseudostellarin A, B, E, F, G, Heterophyllin A, B, D UPLC-triple TOF–MS/MS; UPLC-ESI-TOF MS/MS [64, 68, 69]
Maltotriose, sucrose, thyronine, inosine triphosphate, pseudostellarin A, B, D, F, heterophyllin A and sphinganine etc. UPLC-triple TOF–MS/MS [44,45,46]
21 compounds Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple time-of-flight mass/mass spectrometry (UPLC-triple TOF–MS/MS) [70]
34 components (heterophyllin A and B, alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, glutamine, raffinose, xylose etc.) 1H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with HPLC [47]
Free amino acid NIR [71]
Nucleosides and nucleobases QTRAP LC–MS/MS [55,56,57, 72]
Volatile components: palmitic acid (21.37%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid ethylester (16.98%), trans-oleic acid (5.94%), chondrillasterol (3.99%), stigmast-7-en-3-ol (3.92%), 5,6-dihydroergosterol(2.48%), 1-monolinolein (2.35%) GC–MS [73]
Polysaccharide High-performance size-exclusion chromatograph (HPSEC) [74]
Water-soluble sugar Phenol–sulfuric acid [75]
Fingerprint HPLC [16, 37, 58,59,60, 76,77,78]
Fingerprint GC–MS [79]