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Table 1 Fecal medicines used in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) system

From: Fecal medicines used in traditional medical system of China: a systematic review of their names, original species, traditional uses, and modern investigations

No. Animal species Medicinal form Chinese name Traditional uses (treated diseases) Refs.
1 Trogopterus xanthipes Milne-Edwards Dry feces Wu-Ling-Zhi Stabbing pain in chest and abdomen, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, swelling and aching due to traumatic injury, and snake bites [5, 8, 52]
2 Bombyx mori L. Dry feces Can-Sha Rheumatism, arthralgia, skin numbness, cold pain in waist and legs, rubella itching, and headache [3, 52]
3 Vespertilio superans Thomas Dry feces Ye-Ming-Sha Night blindness, swelling and pain in the eyes, infantile malnutrition, scrofula, and malaria [5, 53]
Rhinolophus ferrumequinum Schreber
Plecotus auritus L.
Hipposideros armiger Hodgson
4 Lepus mandschuricus Radde Dry feces Wang-Yue-Sha Blurred vision, hemorrhoids and fistula, and infantile malnutrition [52, 54, 55]
Lepus sinensis Gray
Lepus oiostolus Hodgson
5 Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson Dry feces Ji-Shi-Bai Jaundice, gonorrhea, wandering arthritis, tetanus, spasm of muscles and tendons, and diabetes [3, 56]
6 Rattus flavipectus Milne-Edwards Dry feces Liang-Tou-Jian Fever due to typhoid, abdominal pain, stranguria with turbid urine, amenorrhea, infantile malnutrition, mammary abscess, and furuncle [56,57,58]
Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout
7 Columba livia domestica L. Dry feces Zuo-Pan-Long Abdominal mass, scrofula and tetanus [3, 57]
8 Physeter macrocephalus L. Dry feces Long-Xian-Xiang Coma due to stuffiness, abdominal pain, cough and dyspnea, and gonorrhea [52, 56]
9 Passer montanus L. Dry feces Bai-Ding-Xiang Abdominal mass, carbuncle and furuncle, blurred vision, pterygium, and dental caries [55, 56, 58]
10 Homo sapiens Fresh fecal juice Yellow soup or Huang-Long decoction Food poisoning, severe diarrhea, heat toxin, and unconsciousness due to high fever [1, 3]
11 Hirundo daurica L. Dry feces Yan-Zi-Fen Edema, malaria, insect poison, ulcer and sore [3, 56]
12 Pavo muticus L. Dry feces Kong-Que-Fen Excessive leucorrhea in women, dysuria and furuncle [3, 56]
13 Bos taurus domesticus Gmelin Fresh fecal juice or dry feces Niu-Fen Fresh fecal juice can cure jaundice caused by diabetes, beriberi, cholera, and dysuria; dry feces can treat malignant sore, cervical lymph node and tuberculosis fistula [3, 56]
Bubalus bubalis L.
14 Ochotona thibetana Milne-Edwards Dry feces Cao-Ling-Zhi Irregular menstruation, stagnant abdominal pain, stomach pain, traumatic injury, and blood stasis [56, 57]
Ochotona erythrotis Buchner