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Table 2 Fecal medicines used in other traditional ethnic medicine (EM) systems in China

From: Fecal medicines used in traditional medical system of China: a systematic review of their names, original species, traditional uses, and modern investigations

No. Animal species Medicinal form Traditional medical systems Traditional uses (treated diseases) Refs.
1 Gypaetus barbatus L. Dry feces Tibetan EM and mongolian EM Dyspepsia, abdominal distension, intestinal tumor, gastric ulcer, weak gastrointestinal function, sores and carbuncles [2, 4, 6]
Aegypius monachus L.
2 Sus scrofa L. Processed feces Tibetan EM and mongolian EM Dyspepsia, biliary diseases, plague and distending pain of stomach [6, 36, 59]
3 Sus scrofa domestica Brisson Processed feces Tibetan EM Dyspepsia, plague and biliary tumor [4, 36, 60]
4 Petaurista xanthotis Milne-Edwards Dry feces Tibetan EM Stomach pain, amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea [59, 60]
5 Pteromys volans L. Dry feces Oroqen EM Dysentery and diarrhea [60]
Kazak EM Metrorrhagia, amenorrhea, and snake bites (external use) [60]
Uygur EM Eczema, itching, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, stomach pain, and traumatic injury [61]
6 Riparia riparia L. Processed feces Tibetan EM Bloody dysentery, chronic diarrhea, women amenorrhea, and hematuria [59, 60]
7 Felis ocreata domestica Brisson Processed feces Tibetan EM Manic psychosis or madness [36, 60]
8 Upupa epops L. Processed feces Tibetan EM Psychopathy [4, 59]
9 Vulpes vulpes L. Dry feces Tibetan EM Psychopathy and epilepsy [4, 60]
10 Trogopterus xanthipes Milne-Edwards Dry feces Mongolian EM Diarrhea, gout and itching [62]
Nu EM Cold, whooping cough and fever [60]
Tibetan EM Stomach pain, dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea [59, 60]
Tujia EM Blood stasis, furuncles, traumatic injury, dysmenorrhea, and snake bites (external use) [60]
Korean EM Stabbing pain in chest and abdomen, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, swelling and aching due to traumatic injury [60]
Dai EM Amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, pain due to blood stasis, and snake bites (external use) [60]
Yao EM Dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, and epilepsy [63]
11 Pipistrellus abramus Temminck Dry feces Wa EM Asthma, burn, night blindness, and infantile malnutrition [60]
Tibetan EM Epilepsy [4, 60]
Tujia EM Night blindness, cataract, infantile malnutrition, and corneal nebula [64]
12 Vespertilio superans Thomas Dry feces Korean EM Night blindness, intermittent fever, cataract, and underarm odor [60]
Yao EM Night blindness, corneal nebula, infantile malnutrition, and scrofula [63]
13 Plecotus kozlovi Bobrinski Processed feces Tibetan EM Eye diseases, scrofula and infantile malnutrition [60]
14 Myotis mystacinus Kuhl Processed feces Tibetan EM Psychosis and epilepsy [60]
15 Lepus capensis L. Dry feces Tibetan EM Blurred vision, hemorrhoids and fistula, and infantile malnutrition [4, 59]
16 Equus caballus orientalis Noack Processed feces Tibetan EM Various parasitic diseases and vomiting [65, 66]
17 Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson Dry feces Korean EM Jaundice, gonorrhea, tetanus, and diabetes [60]
Tibetan EM Eye diseases [4, 60]
Dai EM Shoulder arthritis, tetanus and corneal scar [60]
18 Rattus rattus L. Dry feces Tibetan EM Epilepsy [59, 60]
19 Physeter macrocephalus L. Dry feces Uygur EM Neurasthenia, memory loss and psychological impotence [60]
20 Passer montanus L. Dry feces Jino EM Manic psychosis or madness [60]
Hani EM Hernia
Tibetan EM Sores and furuncles (external use) [59, 60]
21 Columba rupestris Pallas Dry feces Tibetan EM Swelling and suppuration [2, 60]
22 Pavo muticus L. Processed feces Tibetan EM Inflammation [4, 36, 59]
23 Bos taurus domesticus Gmelin Processed feces Tibetan EM Food poisoning, limbs pain, and spasm [4, 36, 59]
24 Canis lupus L. Processed feces Tibetan EM and mongolian EM Psychopathy and swelling [4, 59]
25 Tetraogallus tibetanus Gould Dry feces Tibetan EM Various swelling [2, 36]
26 Bubo bubo hemachalana Hume Processed feces Tibetan EM Psychopathy and epilepsy [4, 59, 67]
27 Pica pica L. Dry feces Tibetan EM Skin diseases, such as sores and furuncles [59, 60]
28 Streptopelia orientalis Latham Dry feces Uygur EM Purulent secretion of the ear; Pain caused by ear diseases [61]
29 Corvus corax L. Processed feces Tibetan EM Bromhidrosis, epilepsy, cough, and psychopathy [59, 60]
30 Canis lupus familiaris L. Processed feces Tibetan EM Psychopathy and swelling; Syphilis, psoriasis and anthracnose (external use) [4, 59, 60]
31 Elephas maximus L. Dry feces Dai EM Ophthalmitis [60]
32 Equus asinus L. Processed feces Tibetan EM Sores and furuncles (external use) and rabies [4, 59]
33 Phalacrocorax carbo L. Dry feces Korean EM Pigmented naevus (external use) [60]
34 Buteo hemilasius Temminck et Schlegel Dry feces Tibetan EM Sores and furuncles (external use) [4, 59]
35 Macaca mulatta Zimmermann Dry feces Tibetan EM Inflammation, swelling and dysentery [59, 60]
36 Ovis aries L. Dry feces Tibetan EM “Huang-Shui” disease in arms and legs (external fumigation) [59, 60]
37 Capra hircus L. Dry feces Tibetan EM Heat toxin syndrome, nervous system diseases and leprosy [4, 60]
Korean EM Child dysentery, borborygmus and convulsive epilepsy [60]
38 Tetrao urogalloides Middendorf Dry feces Tibetan EM Psychopathy and swelling [4]
39 Lutra lutra L. Processed feces Tibetan EM Uterine diseases [4, 60]
40 Moschus sifanicus Przewalski Dry feces Tibetan EM Limb numbness, paralysis and blood stasis [4, 36, 59]