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Table 4 Basic pharmacological data of commonly used fecal medicines mentioned in the article

From: Fecal medicines used in traditional medical system of China: a systematic review of their names, original species, traditional uses, and modern investigations

Name Type of extract Animal or cell N Dose Minimal active concentration In vitro/In vivo Positive control Negative control Duration Effect and mechanism Refs.
Wu-Ling-Zhi Ethyl acetate extract Rats 8 15–120 mg/kg 15 mg/kg In vivo Ranitidine Normal saline 12 h Inhibiting gastric acid secretion and protecting gastric mucosa [86]
Ethyl acetate extract Rats 10 200–800 mg/kg 400 mg/kg In vivo Aspirin Normal saline 30 min Inhibiting the synthesis or release of prostaglandin E (PGE) [25]
Ethanol extract MCF-7 cells 5 25–400 μg/ml 100 μg/ml In vitro DMSO 24 h Increasing the expression levels of Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 [29]
Ethyl acetate extract Rabbits 3 0.62–1.04 mg/ml 0.78 mg/ml In vitro Aspirin DMSO; 60% ethanol; PBS 10 min Significant prolongation of thrombin time [87]
Water extract Rabbits 5 30.8–616 μg/kg 56,225 μg/kg In vitro Normal saline 10–15 min Significant increase of cAMP level in platelets [88]
Water extract Rats 7 200–300 mg/kg 200 mg/kg In vivo - Normal saline 20 min
Water extract Rats 8 20–60 mg/kg 60 mg/kg In vivo Ligustrazine Normal saline 7 days Significant reduction of MDA and IL1-β levels; increasing SOD activity [89]
Water extract Mice and rats 10 5–10 g/kg 5 g/kg In vivo Nimodipine Normal saline Reducing the brain water content, brain index and MDA level, and increasing SOD activity [27]
Water extract Rats 15 2.5–10 g/kg 2.5 g/kg In vivo Normal saline 6 week Down-regulation of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in experimental atherosclerotic rats and reducing the degree of vascular endothelial lesions [28]
Hei-Bing-Pian Aqueous solution Rats 8 0.5–2 g/kg 0.5 g/kg In vivo Hydrocortisone acetate 10 days Increasing the expression of SOD and GSH, and reducing the expression of NO and MDA [40]
Aqueous solution Rabbits 2 0.01–0.2 g/ml In vitro Tyrode’s solution 30 min Regulating the cholinergic M receptor and histamine receptor [41]
Rats 6 0.05–0.1 g/kg In vivo 30 min
Aqueous solution Rats 8 1–5 g/kg 5 g/kg In vivo Domperidone Normal saline 30 min Accelerating the rate of gastric emptying, promoting gastrointestinal peristalsis and protecting gastric mucosa [42]
Mice 10 1–5 g/kg 5 g/kg In vivo Domperidone Normal saline 30 min
Rats 8 1–5 g/kg 5 g/kg In vivo Kuai-Wei tablets Normal saline 15 days
0.5% CMC-Na solution Rats 20 4–12 g/kg In vivo Distilled water 12 w No toxicity was observed after long-term administration [43]