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Table 4 Primary and secondary outcomes

From: Acupuncture and herbal moxibustion for the treatment of ‘BiQiu’ (allergic rhinitis symptoms) in a Hong Kong Chinese medicine clinic: a randomized controlled trial

Primary analysis
 Acupuncture and herbal moxibustion(N = 32)Acupuncture(N = 32)Waiting list(N = 32)Acupuncture and herbal moxibustion vs. acupunctureAcupuncture and herbal moxibustion vs. waiting listAcupuncture vs. waiting listP-value+
n mean (SD)n mean (SD)n mean (SD)β (95% CI)P-value*β (95% CI)P-value*β (95% CI)P-value*
TNSS score            < 0.01
 Weeks 4294.7 (2.7)305.1 (3.0)298.4 (3.0)− 0.6 (− 2.1 ~ 0.9)0.42− 4.6 (− 6.1 ~ − 3.1)< 0.001− 4.0 (− 5.4 ~ − 2.5)< 0.001 
 Weeks 8296.2 (2.9)305.7 (3.0)288.2 (3.9)0.4 (− 1.3 ~ 2.1)0.67− 2.8 (− 4.6 ~ − 1.1)0.002− 3.2 (− 5.0 ~ − 1.4)< 0.001 
RQLQ score      < 0.01
 Weeks 4291.56 (0.85)301.71 (1.19)292.32 (0.97)− 0.3 (− 0.8 ~ 0.2)0.22− 1.1 (− 0.7 ~ − 1.6)< 0.001− 0.8 (− 0.4 ~ − 1.3)0.001 
 Weeks 8291.83 (0.96)301.58 (0.95)282.44 (1.11)0.1 (− 0.4 ~ 0.61.56)0.65− 1.0 (− 0.6 ~ − 1.4)< 0.001− 1.1 (− 0.6 ~ − 1.6)< 0.001 
Total IgE      0.14
 Weeks 429146.4 (147.5)30171.3 (252.4)29278.6 (419.7)− 19.3 (− 41.8 ~ 3.3)0.0912.3 (− 21.0 ~ 45.6)0.4731.5 (− 3.9 ~ 67.0)0.08 
 Weeks 829147.2 (147.7)29152.0 (201.7)28286.5 (422.5)5.9 (− 19.1 ~ 31.0)0.648.9 (− 33.2 ~ 51.0)0.682.9 (− 41.7 ~ 47.5)0.90 
Sensitivity analysis (primary outcome)
 BOCF imputation            < 0.01
  Weeks 4325.1 (2.9)325.3 (2.9)328.3 (3.0)− 0.4 (− 1.9 ~ 1.1)0.62− 4.1 (− 5.5 ~ − 2.7)< 0.001− 3.7 (− 5.1 ~ − 2.3)< 0.001 
  Weeks 8326.5 (3.0)325.8 (2.9)328.2 (3.8)0.5 (− 1.2 ~ 2.2)0.56− 2.7 (− 4.3 ~ − 1.1)0.001− 3.2 (− 4.8 ~ − 1.5)< 0.001 
 As treated            < 0.01
  Weeks 4294.7 (2.7)305.1 (3.0)298.4 (3.0)− 0.7 (− 2.2 ~ 0.9)0.40− 4.8 (− 6.2 ~ − 3.4)< 0.001− 4.1 (− 5.5 ~ − 2.8)< 0.001 
  Weeks 8296.2 (2.9)305.7 (3.0)288.2 (3.9)0.4 (− 1.4 ~ 2.2)0.65− 2.9 (− 4.7 ~ − 1.2)0.001− 3.3 (− 5.2 ~ − 1.5)< 0.001 
  1. *GEE model, comparing change from baseline between groups, model: intercept, group, visit, gender, group by visit interaction effect
  2. +GEE model, P-value of group by visit interaction effect