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Table 1 Pharmacological actions and therapeutic or regulatory mechanisms of HLJDD

From: Huang-Lian Jie-Du decoction: a review on phytochemical, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic investigations

Pharmacological actionsModelMechanismsRefs.
Anti-tumorHepatocellular carcinoma xenograft murineSuppressing xenografted growth by inactivating eEF2 through the activation of AMPK signaling[6]
 Hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft
Hep G2
Inducing apoptosis
Blocking cell cycle progression by regulating cell-cycle-related factor (p21/WAF1, cyclin B1, cyclin A, Cdc25C, and Cdc2)
Promoting programmed cell death by modulating Bcl-2
Triggering mitochondrial pathway through membrane depolarization and caspase-9 activation
Inhibiting NF-κB survival signaling pathway
HepatoprotectionThioacetamideRestoring redox system, gut flora, and urea cycle[24]
 Bile duct ligationRestoring redox system, gut flora, Kreb’s cycle, and oxidation of branchedchain amino acids[24]
 Bile duct ligationAmeliorating energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and gut microbiota metabolism
Protecting oxidative injury
Anti-inflammatoryCarrageenan-induced rat air pouch
A23187-stimulated peritoneal macrophages
LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages
Inhibiting inflammatory responses and eicosanoids generation from different lipoxygenases[106]
 Carrageenan-induced mice paw edema
LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages
Reducing oxidative injury[44]
 Collagen-induced arthritis ratsRegulating fatty acid oxidation and arachidonic acid metabolism[19]
 LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophagesSuppressing the production of inflammatory mediators via inactivation of NF-κB and MAPKs, and degradation of IκBα[108]
 Cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic model ratsEnhancing cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway
Inhibiting HMGB-1/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway
 Cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic model ratsSuppressing the production of proinflammatory cytokines
Reversing the shift from Th1 to Th2 response and promote Th1/Th2 balance toward Th1 predominance
Iinhibiting Th17 activation
 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis mice
LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages
Inhibiting MAPKs/NF-κB pathway[115]
 LPS-induced gingivitis ratsInhibiting AMPK and ERK1/2 pathway[116]
 LPS-induced acute kidney injury miceInhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activation
Activating Akt/HO-1 pathway
Ameliorating disturbances in oxidative stress and energy metabolism
Anti-allergyAntigen-induced RBL-2H3 cellsSuppressing allergic mediators via inactivation of MAPKs and Lyn pathway[108]
Modulation of blood lipidApoE(-/-) mice
Primary bone marrow-derived macrophage
Foam cells
Regulating the functional differentiation of monocytes, macrophages, and foam cells[119]
 High-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia ratsActivating the activityof lipid metabolism enzyme
Enhancing the expressions of LDLR and PPAR γ mRNAs
 High-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced T2DM ratsInhibiting the activity of intestinal pancreatic lipase[30]
Modulation of blood glucosestreptozotocin-induced T2DM ratsEnhancing GLP-1 secretion in gut to promoting insulin secretion and improving function of β cell[120]
 Min6 cells
NCI-H716 cells
Elevating intracellular cAMP levels to promote GLP-1 secretion and insulin secretion
Increasing β cell mass through hyperplasia and hypertrophy
Central nervous system diseasesMCAO ratsInhibiting neuron apoptosis and enhancing its proliferation through activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and HIF-1α[28]
 MCAO ratsInducing protective autophagy through the regulation of MAPK signals[126]
 MCAO ratsAmeliorating the disordered metabolisms in energy, membrane and mitochondrial, amino acid and neurotransmitter
Alleviating the inflammatory damage and the oxidative stress from ROS
Recovering the destructed osmoregulation
 SAMP8Modulating gene expressions in signal transduction (Dusp12, Rps6ka1, Rab26, Penk1, Nope, Leng8, Syde1, Phb, Def8, Ihpk1, Tac2, Pik3c2a), protein metabolism (Ttc3, Amfr, Prr6, Ube2d2), cell growth and development (Ngrn, Anln, Dip3b, Acrbp), nucleic acid metabolism (Fhit, Itm2c, Cstf2t, Ddx3x, Ercc5, Pcgfr6), energy metabolism (Stub1, Uqcr, Nsf), immune response (C1qb), regulation of transcription (D1ertd161e, Gcn5l2, Ssu72), transporter (Slc17a7, mt-Co1), nervous system development (Trim3), and neurogila cell differentiation (Tspan2)[132]
APPswe/PS1dE9 miceAmeliorating neuroinflammation and sphingolipid metabolic disorder[34]
HEK 293 cellsInhibiting indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity[133]
Anti-infectionCandida albicansInhibiting formation of hyphae and colony morphologies through downregulating the expression of HWP1, ALS3, UME6 and CSH1[136]
 Pseudomonas aeruginosaReducing pyocyanin pigment, elastolytic activity, proteolytic activity, biofilm formation, and bacterial motility[137]
 H1N1Inhibiting NA activity[139]
Modulation of microbiotaHigh-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced T2DM ratsAmeliorating hyperglycemia and restoring the disturbed gut microbiota structure and function through increasing short chain fatty acids-producing bacteria while reducing conditioned pathogenic bacteria[143]