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Table 6 Studies of NCTD on promoting demethylation, modulating immune response and some other anticancer activities

From: Insight into norcantharidin, a small-molecule synthetic compound with potential multi-target anticancer activities

Anticancer activities Cancers Cell lines Basic mechanisms Pathways Accompanying roles Experiment Referencess
Promoting demethylation NSCLC   Inhibiting proliferation, invasion, migration; inducing apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest; blocking β-beta-catenin; altering Bax, caspase-3, Bcl-2; activating WIF-1 and SFRP1; promoting WIF-1 demethylation, thus inhibits Wnt signal pathway Promoting demethylation of WIF-1 Activating WIF-1 and SFRP1 In vitro [125]
Glioma LN229
Inhibiting proliferation, migration, invasion; inducing apoptosis and G2 phase cell-cycle arrest; downregulating Bcl-2, activating caspase-3; promoting WIF-1 and its demethylation; suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling, cyclin B1, and β-catenin/TCF-4; Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 Inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway via promoting WIF-1 demethylation Activating WIF-1 and SFRP1 In vitro [126]
Hepatocellular cancer HepG2 Inhibiting proliferation and RASSF1A methylation in a dose-dependent manner Inhibiting RASSF1A methylation   In vitro [121]
Modulating immune responses   Macrophages Promoting the phosphorylation of AKT/p65 and transcriptional activity of NF-κB Upregulation of AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway   In vitro
In vivo
  Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) Blocking PHA-induced cyclins D3, E, A and B and IL-2 mRNAs expression; improving production of cyclin D3, E, A and B and IL-2; Cell cycle G0/G1 arrest; blocking cell proliferation    In vitro [128]
Suppressing tumor glucose oxidative metabolism   Morris Hepatoma 7777 Suppressing tumour 14C-labelled glucose oxidative metabolism in rat Morris hepatoma    In vitro
In vivo
Inhibiting NAT activity Hepatocellular cancer HepG2 NAT activity on acetylation of 2-aminofluorene (AF) and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) were examined, inhibiting NAT activity    In vitro [131]
The effect on leukemic stem cells Acute myeloid leukemia MV4-11 Decreasing HLF, inducing apoptosis by modulating HLF, SLUG, NFIL3 and c-myc, thereby inducing p53 and the mitochondrial caspase cascade, producing no myelosuppression    In vitro
In vivo
Modulating macrophage polarization Hepatocellular cancer HepG2, mouse hepatoma H22, BMDM Raw 264.7 Inhibiting tumor growth, survival and invasion, decreasing a shift from M2 to M1 polarization and CD4+/CD25+ Foxp3 T cells in HCC microenvironment; inhibiting STAT3; enhancing M1 polarization through increasing miR-214 expression; inhibited β-catenin Through miR-214 modulating macrophage polarization   In vitro
In vivo