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Table 6 Studies of NCTD on promoting demethylation, modulating immune response and some other anticancer activities

From: Insight into norcantharidin, a small-molecule synthetic compound with potential multi-target anticancer activities

Anticancer activities Cancers Cell lines Basic mechanisms Pathways Accompanying roles Experiment Referencess
Promoting demethylation NSCLC   Inhibiting proliferation, invasion, migration; inducing apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest; blocking β-beta-catenin; altering Bax, caspase-3, Bcl-2; activating WIF-1 and SFRP1; promoting WIF-1 demethylation, thus inhibits Wnt signal pathway Promoting demethylation of WIF-1 Activating WIF-1 and SFRP1 In vitro [125]
Glioma LN229
U251
Inhibiting proliferation, migration, invasion; inducing apoptosis and G2 phase cell-cycle arrest; downregulating Bcl-2, activating caspase-3; promoting WIF-1 and its demethylation; suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling, cyclin B1, and β-catenin/TCF-4; Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 Inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway via promoting WIF-1 demethylation Activating WIF-1 and SFRP1 In vitro [126]
Hepatocellular cancer HepG2 Inhibiting proliferation and RASSF1A methylation in a dose-dependent manner Inhibiting RASSF1A methylation   In vitro [121]
Modulating immune responses   Macrophages Promoting the phosphorylation of AKT/p65 and transcriptional activity of NF-κB Upregulation of AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway   In vitro
In vivo
[127]
  Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) Blocking PHA-induced cyclins D3, E, A and B and IL-2 mRNAs expression; improving production of cyclin D3, E, A and B and IL-2; Cell cycle G0/G1 arrest; blocking cell proliferation    In vitro [128]
Suppressing tumor glucose oxidative metabolism   Morris Hepatoma 7777 Suppressing tumour 14C-labelled glucose oxidative metabolism in rat Morris hepatoma    In vitro
In vivo
[130]
Inhibiting NAT activity Hepatocellular cancer HepG2 NAT activity on acetylation of 2-aminofluorene (AF) and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) were examined, inhibiting NAT activity    In vitro [131]
The effect on leukemic stem cells Acute myeloid leukemia MV4-11 Decreasing HLF, inducing apoptosis by modulating HLF, SLUG, NFIL3 and c-myc, thereby inducing p53 and the mitochondrial caspase cascade, producing no myelosuppression    In vitro
In vivo
[4]
Modulating macrophage polarization Hepatocellular cancer HepG2, mouse hepatoma H22, BMDM Raw 264.7 Inhibiting tumor growth, survival and invasion, decreasing a shift from M2 to M1 polarization and CD4+/CD25+ Foxp3 T cells in HCC microenvironment; inhibiting STAT3; enhancing M1 polarization through increasing miR-214 expression; inhibited β-catenin Through miR-214 modulating macrophage polarization   In vitro
In vivo
[23]